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Louisiana Loses!
Gambling with Taxpayer Money, Tulane Style
Mississippi Wins -- Louisiana Loses
On August 28, 2002, classes began for 200 students who enrolled at Tulane's newest University College location in Edgewater Mall, Biloxi, Mississippi [1,2].  This venture, with a startup cost of about $500,000, created the unique circumstance in which Louisiana taxpayers subsidize a private enterprise doing business in another state [3,4].  It also exposes Tulane to criticism for supporting Mississippi's casino industry, which competes with the ailing, but taxpaying, casino industry in the New Orleans area, just 87 miles away.

University Branch to Teach Casino Courses in Biloxi

(From: CasinoNews - Dec. 12, 2001) [5]

Tulane University - based in New Orleans, LA - plans to eventually offer casino-related courses at its planned branch in Biloxi, Miss. There is a need for casino and resort management courses in Biloxi, but Mississippi state law prohibits state universities from offering casino courses. At a reception Monday sponsored by the Biloxi and Biloxi Bay chambers of commerce to welcome the new branch, the dean of Tulane's University College said he doesn't believe the school will begin casino-industry courses until next winter. "We're going to have to work with (the casinos) and figure out what their needs are," said Rick Marksbury.

"It is a wonderful opportunity for the University to expand its community outreach to growth areas where little competition exists."

-- Tulane President Scott S. Cowen [3]

"The potential is larger than any program that I've been involved with for 25 years. . ."

-- University College Dean Richard Marksbury [13]

But for some, gambling is an abomination of little redeeming value.


Economic Opportunity

Clearly, the economic potential of Mississippi's Gulf Coast has not escaped the attention of Tulane administrators.  With 12 area casino/hotels, the Mississippi Gulf Coast has become the nation's third largest gaming destination, grossing over $1.1 billion in gaming revenues in 2000 [6].  The area is also home to a number of important military installations: Keesler Air Force Base, the Gulfport Sea Bee's, the Pascagoula Naval Station, and the Stennis Space Center.

Confidence about business opportunities on the Gulf Coast is also reflected in the actions of major investors.  Joseph C. Canizaro is a member of Tulane's President's Council.  He is also the President and CEO of Columbus Properties, a real estate development company headquartered in New Orleans that joined with two other partners to form Traditional Community Development Corporation to develop a community for 25,000 to 30,000 new residents on a 4,600 acre site in Mississippi's Harrison County, just north of Biloxi and Gulfport [7].


New Gaming Legislation

By: Ben H. Stone, Scott E. Andress & R. Trabue Bland

(From: IAGA Jurisdiction Highlights: Mississippi) [8]

On January 8, the Mississippi Legislature convened the 2002 Regular Legislative Session. Facing a severe budget shortfall, legislators introduced several bills to increase fees on gaming licensees. The fee increases would have funded a myriad of programs from highway maintenance to education. However, all gaming fee increase bills died in committee.

The Legislature also failed to pass two bills that would have allowed state-supported universities to teach gaming-related courses. Seeking an opportunity, Tulane University, a private university based in New Orleans, Louisiana, has opened a branch of its University College in Biloxi, Mississippi to fill the demand for gaming-related courses.

Governor Ronnie Musgrove signed Senate Bill 3113 mandating the withholding of a 3% tax on gaming winnings at non-licensed gaming operations. Targeted at the Choctaws' gaming operation in Philadelphia, Mississippi, the new law is identical to the law passed last year mandating that licensed gaming operations withhold a 3% tax on gaming winnings.

Tulane's Response

In a telephone statement made to this Web site's author on October 21, 2002, Richard Marksbury, dean of Tulane University's University College, emphatically denied that Tulane had already entered into any agreement to teach gaming-related courses in Biloxi.  He emphasized that Tulane is only "considering this as a future option."  Moreover, gaming-related courses would be limited to subjects such as management, marketing and accounting, and Tulane would not be involved in teaching blackjack, odds-making, or other skills used in actual casino operations.

Still unanswered is why Mississippi residents are so attracted to Tulane's program when they can register for the same course titles in their own public institutions at less than half the cost [9].  The answer may lie in the fact that Tulane's offerings are truly casino oriented.

In 2003, Tulane hired Tom Brosig, a co-founder of Grand Casino, to teach its casino management course.  According to Lou Campomenosi, assistant dean of Tulane's Mississippi Coast campus in Biloxi, slots for the seven-week summer course were essentially filled as soon as registration opened [10].  In 2004, a grateful Harrah's Foundation gave Tulane $250,000 for scholarships to its Casino Resort Management Program [11].

In 2005, Tulane announced that a Casino/Resort Management course will be offered in its University College adult education program in New Orleans [12].  Also, in partnership with a Choctaw Indian tribe, Tulane will offer casino management courses at the tribe's Pearl River Resort near Philadelphia, Mississippi [13].  Tulane also recruited the former chairman of the Mississippi Gaming Commission, Leonard Adam "Len" Blackwell II, to teach a course on legal issues related to gaming [14].

In 2008, The director of Tulane's Casino Resort Studies program, Alan Silver, reported that Harrah's Foundation awarded Tulane $250,000 to establish minority scholarships in the Biloxi, Mississippi program, and that the Grand Biloxi Casino, Hotel & Spa, together with Harrah's Foundation, sponsored six scholarships to Tulane students on the Biloxi campus [15].

The success of Tulane's offerings in casino management has spurred interest in developing other business opportunities in Mississippi.  Thus, Tulane has expanded its operations by offering bachelor's degrees to graduates of the two-year Gulf Coast Community College [16] and management courses to healthcare workers, leading to a Healthcare Business Certificate [17].  In 2009, Tulane announced plans to open two new Mississippi campuses, in Madison and Jackson [18], and in 2010 it opened a new satellite medical campus in Baton Rouge, Louisiana [19].

Tulane's expansion across state lines does not represent anything new.  Tulane has already established business teaching partnerships in Taiwan, China, Chile, Ecuador, Mexico, Columbia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Peru and Honduras [20], and in 2002 it opened yet another instructional campus in Houston, Texas [21].  The Houston campus was so successful that by 2004 there were 100 students in its business administration program, and Tulane announced plans to offer master's degrees in engineering [22].  Another business administration program was later established in Alexandria, Louisiana [21].  In 2003, Tulane finalized a collaborative agreement with the Industrial Technical Research Institute of Taiwan [23].  In 2005, Tulane announced that it is considering offering courses in casino management at locations in China and Europe [13].  The question for Louisiana citizens and politicians to consider is whether their tax dollars should continue to be diverted from public programs such as education to help support the national and international business ambitions of Tulane University, Inc.


Hitting the Jackpot on Investment

In 2002, the Louisiana Board of Regents awarded Tulane $4 million for professors' salaries, 40% of which was taken from public monies [24].  The figures suggest that, since 1986, the state may have awarded Tulane about $75 million from public sources to help pay for professors' salaries.  The Louisiana Board of Regents also awarded Tulane $3.4 million for a new Medical Center program that opened in 2002 [25], and another $1.3 million to help establish a Chair of Humanities and Ethics in Medicine [26].  In October, 2002 the Louisiana Legislature created a 3¢ cigarette tax to help support Tulane and LSU programs.  This tax raised about $1.5 million in just 4 months [27].  In 2003, the state awarded "matching funds" for four professorships at Tulane [28] and followed this with an endowed chair and 10 additional professorships later that same year [29].  In 2004, the state granted Tulane $4.3 million of public money for three endowed chairs and 13 professorships [30].  Such large subsidies to a private institution that is exempt from paying taxes on its real estate and commercial holdings is extraordinary.  These awards supplement the contracts that Tulane has with the state, which are renewed each year.  In fiscal 2001, Tulane Medical Center received more than $63.4 million for various medical services it provided at the state's medical center in New Orleans [31].  At the Medical Center, certain expenses appear to have been defrayed by the sale of excess donated cadavers by a third party broker.

Such public support is particularly striking when, according to Dean of Admissions Richard Whiteside, only 14% of Tulane students admitted in 2003 were Louisiana residents [32].  Moreover, in 2003 only 23% of Tulane's medical school graduates remained in Louisiana for their residencies, and fewer will probably end up practicing here [33A].  In 2005, under 22% of Tulane's medical school graduates remained in Louisiana for residencies, compared with about 55% for Louisiana State University's medical graduates [33B].  In 2006 (post-Katrina), those numbers dropped to 16% of Tulane's medical school graduates and 44% of LSU's [33C], and in 2008, those figures were 15% and 50%, respectively [33D].  According to Marc Kahn, Tulane Medical School's associate dean for admissions and student affairs, Tulane accepts students from throughout the U.S., "so we expect them to go back" [33C].

The use of public funds to benefit a private enterprise comes at a time when Louisiana's public schools are facing severe financial crisis, and teachers are still waiting for a meaningful pay raise as promised by Governor Foster years ago [34].  Even under the new administration of Governor Kathleen Blanco, teachers have fared no better [35].  Now that taxes from riverboat gambling and the casino have been revised drastically downward, the state is being forced to cut public health care and public education even more deeply [36].  Under these circumstances, Tulane's attachment to the fortunes of Mississippi's gambling industry seems contemptuous of Louisiana's citizens and their representatives, and motivated by profit.

History has taught Tulane that the goodwill created by its generosity to lawmakers is repaid many fold in the form of grants and other benefits.  In fiscal 2001, for example, Tulane spent $592,943 for "Direct contact with legislators, their staffs, government officials, or a legislative body." [37]  Clearly, expenditures to maintain political influence bring a handsome return on the investment.  Unfortunately, such transactions exemplify the ability of corrupting politics to influence the behavior of legislators to the detriment of the public they have sworn to serve.

The public has a right to expect that the flow of state money into Tulane's operations would obligate Tulane to be as intent about developing local resources as it is about developing them elsewhere.  Perhaps the time has come for Louisiana politicians to reevaluate the state's relationship with Tulane University, and in particular its dubious "private" status.  The state must also decide whether it should continue to supply the equivalent of free venture capital to a "nonprofit" academic institution that is heavily involved in foreign development for the benefit of its bond holders, administrators, contractors, partners, directors, and their associates [38].

Because of its grip on state legislators and the judiciary, Tulane University appears to be one of the single most corrupting influences in the state of Louisiana.  As a first step toward quelling its unwholesome growth, the state should require Tulane to immediately return $300 million – less than half its endowment – to the state treasury [39].  The state could then use those funds to implement the pay raise for Louisiana's public school teachers that was long promised by Governor Foster.  Instead, Tulane is negotiating to create an exclusive new high school, financed by additional state and local funds, that would employ Tulane's own personnel as faculty on the Uptown Square shopping center it purchased in 2001 [40].  Curiously, some members of the Orleans Parish School Board have endorsed Tulane's participation in establishing a new high school – despite employment practices by Tulane that conflict with policies negotiated between the school board and the American Federation of Teachers for school employees [41].

With the prospect of further access to public funding, Tulane began to insinuate itself into the New Orleans Public Schools (NOPS) by means of a new Internet library resource "Offered only to educators in the New Orleans Public School District..." [42].  Although Tulane does not have a school of education, it began "testing the waters" by sending student observers into various public schools, and it specifically enlisted the cooperation of Kathy Riedlinger, principal of Lusher Extension School [43].  Tulane continued to quietly negotiate with Superintendent of Schools Anthony Amato about a "partnership" in a new Lusher High School that would be housed in an alternative uptown building, Sophie B. Wright Middle School, whose existing students would be displaced.  The public outrage that followed disclosure of this "under-the-radar" scheme was a factor that contributed to Amato's abrupt resignation and forced Tulane's plan to be temporarily shelved [44].

Tulane's other plan for its Uptown Square property, which it has rechristened "University Square," includes a 109-room hotel and conference center, a 14-story dormitory, buildings to house administrators, health-care, child-care and retail services, and garage space for 1,060 cars.  The neighbors may not be pleased, but the City Planning Commission was ready to waive zoning restrictions that would prevent construction of a high-rise dormitory in that residential neighborhood [45].  One neighborhood association sued the City Council over its failure to observe zoning laws and other restrictions when it approved the Tulane project [46].

Tulane University, Inc.

Viewed in perspective, Tulane's outreach into Mississippi is but a minor expression of the university's appetite for expansion on a global scale.  To that end, Tulane has created the Payson Center for International Development and Technology, run by former Tulane President Eamon Kelly and former Vice-President Bill Bertrand, seemingly for the absorption of government funds [47].  With an annual budget of $6 million in government grants and contracts, the Payson Center maintains 20 full-time staff members in offices at Tulane, Washington, D.C., and in foreign countries.  Among its heralded activities, the Tulane program sends representatives to lecture on AIDS in African countries such as Rwanda and the Republic of Congo, where hundreds of thousands have been killed in recent civil wars [47].  In 2003, Tulane received $9.2 million, derived from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), to help improve public health programs in developing nations [48].  In 2006, Tulane received $4.47 million from the USAID Global Health Fellowship program to help prepare public health professionals for service abroad [49], and $4.3 million from the U.S. Department of Labor to study the issue of child labor in West Africa [50].  USAID awarded Tulane another $3.5 million in 2007 to help evaluate health organization effectiveness in "low- and middle-income countries" in Africa and elsewhere [51].  Tulane also received $2.5 million in 2007 from the U.S. National Institutes of Health for studies to improve the maternal health of women in the Republic of Congo, Zambia, India, Pakistan, Argentina and Guatemala [52] and $14 million from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for AIDS programs in Ethiopia and other African countries [53].  In 2010, Tulane received a $15.25 million contract from the U.S. National Instutites of Health to study Lassa fever in western Africa [54].

While such activities may give the appearance of genuine assistance, they nevertheless represent steps toward enabling Tulane to establish a foothold in developing countries, where it could eventually seek economic opportunities for the enrichment of its corporate-minded executives and their associates in government and the private sector.  Tulane's foreign exploits appear to violate its founding charter, which assigned Tulane's foremost obligation to the citizens of Louisiana.  In 2004, with the aid of public money, Tulane had enlarged its sphere of medical expertise delivery to countries in South America through its new "Center for Evidence-Based Global Health" [55].  In 2009, it received a $2.3 million grant from the National Institutes of Health to pursue medical activities in Buenos Aires, Argentina, Temuco, Chile, and Canelones, Uruguay [56].

Along with its goals in South America, Tulane has a far-reaching strategy that involves post-Castro Cuba and its exercise of influence over the port of New Orleans [57]:

“Academic and commercial exchanges could be designed with dozens of institutions that enjoy State Department approval for academic alliances with the Cuban Republic.  Free of the political associations with Cuban nationals found in Houston and Miami, New Orleans would offer a safe port for the trade that will ensue when the leadership changes.  Tulane should have delegates on the City Leaders delegation that leaves New Orleans for Havana this week.” (From memo dated Nov. 13, 2004 [58].)

In 1998, Tulane established a program in Taiwan that offered master's degrees in medical management to executives of that nation's National Defense Medical Center [58].  This was followed in 2004 by the Tulane Asia Elite Leadership (TAEL) program, which offered master's degrees in public health to Taiwanese executives.  The objective of these programs is "to train future leaders from Taiwan in health administration and health system management," according to Dr. Paul Whelton, Tulane vice president for Health Sciences, who added, "We have a strong commitment to education of students from Asia." [58]  The program was later expanded to include a summer study program for Tulane students at Fudan Univiersity School of Public Health in Shanghai, China [58].  In 2009, the summer program was extended to Jiaotong University in Shanghai and Shangdong University in Jinan [58A].  That same year, Tulane President Scott Cowen led a delegation to Taiwan to sign academic exchange agreements with National Taiwan University, China Medical University and Asia University [58B]  "Taiwan and its universities play an important part in Tulane's global strategy," Cowen said [58B].  Subsequently, Tulane announced a collaborative relationship with Tongji Medical College in Wuhan City, China [58C].

Since 1986, Tulane Medical School has offered training to Saudi physicians in preparation for certification/licensure examinations in the U.S. [59].  The program is sponsored by Aramco, the same ministry that manages Saudi Arabia's oil reserves [60].  With encouragement from the U.S. Treasury Department, Tulane expanded this program in 1994 to include 20 Saudi physicians per year [59].  Tulane has also demonstrated an interest in the new health education center of Buraidah City, in the Al-Qassim region of Saudi Arabia [61], and it retains a Diplomat-in-Residence from the U.S. Department of State, with expertise in Middle East affairs [62].  In 2007, Tulane's Payson Center for International Devlopment and Technology hosted a symposium on relations betwen the United States and the Islamic world [63].

Even more noteworthy is Tulane's outreach to China.  There, the US/China Institute of Tulane University intends to introduce U.S. technology, equipment, management practice and regulations related to the natural gas industry of Mainland China, which is expected to develop dramatically in the next few years and where "A major gas pipeline that will deliver natural gas from west China to the eastern coast is estimated to be completed in 2003." [63]

Initially, Tulane intends to help "...build a sufficient team of certified regulators, managers, engineers, planners, marketers, and technicians for the natural gas industry in China." [63]  It appears that Tulane's long-range goal in China is to become a major broker in the development of China's potentially vast market for energy resources in partnership with leading energy industrialists in the U.S. and China, with Tulane administrators and their associates serving as nouveau CEOs [38].  However, Tulane's involvement in China's burgeoning economy is not limited to industrial partnerships; it extends to areas of city planning and urban development as well, including a master plan for the Chinese city of Zhenujian [64].  Since 2002, Tulane's Academy of Chinese Studies has included classes in Chinese language as well as Chinese culture [64A].

In 2008, Tulane announced that it is extending its casino program to Chinese universities by broadcasting live from its Biloxi campus and through the use of Tulane-approved instructors in China.  The Venetian Casino in Macau, China, is the largest casino in the world with revenues surpassing those of Las Vegas and Atlantic City combined [65].  In 2008, 60 Tulane masters of business administration students traveled to Beijing to explore future business opportunities in China [66].  Another 15 students participated in a Chinese public health studies program in Shanghai [66].

Tulane adjunct professor Judge Ginger Berrigan is credited with helping to establish good relationships with the Chinese judiciary and laying the groundwork for future cooperation in legal matters.  In 2001, Congress appropriated $500,000 to Tulane's US/China Institute to pursue its activities in China [67], and in 2002, the US/China Institute was slated to receive another federal appropriation of $500,000 [68].  In 2004, a Chinese national, a chemical engineer recently employed on Tulane's faculty, was lauded for his success in acquiring technology grants from both the US and Chinese governments [69].  In 2007, Tulane announced that it will provide up to 10 scholarships per year to select Taiwanese students who wish to pursue a master's degree in public health [70].  Medical students from Taiwan's China Medical University will also be accepted for internships at Tulane [70].

Tulane's world-wide outreach includes an affiliation with the International University of Geneva, a Swiss, business-oriented educational institution whose high admission requirements and fees insures that only the children of wealthy families will participate in the unique activities offered on its exclusive campus [71].

In keeping with maintaining close ties to the military, the Tulane Missile Defense Project received $2.46 million in 2002 from Pentagon sources and aerospace contractor Xontech to help develop technology for the US government's Star Wars program [72].  Closer to home is the Entergy-Tulane Energy Institute, another partnership with industry that was created in 2003 to attract government grants and commercial contracts in electrical power generation and transmission markets [73].  In 2004, Tulane received a $2.5 million grant from Entergy, and in 2005, Entergy installed one of its two supercomputers in Tulane's School of Engineering, said to be the only one of its kind at an American university, capable of simulating the operation and vulnerability of a multi-state power grid [74].  Entergy's 190,000 rate payers in New Orleans may feel they are being taxed to help support the private university.  Louisiana's Public Service Commission regulates the rates Entergy charges its customers.  In 2007, Entergy awarded Tulane $25,000 in grants [75].

Tulane's interest in energy is more than just academic.  Its 2004 Latin American Law Institute featured representatives of Murphy Oil, CITGO Oil, Exxon Mobile, Harken Energy, British Petroleum, and the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) as well as the former presidents of Costa Rica and Bolivia and U.S. Assistant Secretary of State Roger Noriega [76].  The honorary chairman of the 2½-day conference was U.S. Representative (and senatorial candidate) David Vitter.  Senator Mary Landrieu served as honorary chairman of Tulane's 2002 institute [77].  According to Chairman George J. Fowler, III, an institute objective is to make New Orleans "a place where international business deals are hatched." [77]

Sheldon Krimsky, who has studied the commercialization of universities, states that many "universities have been taken over by money managers and academic entrepreneurs who are looking for financially lucrative research." [78]  In 2004, encouraged by a $5,000 first prize, a team from the medical school entered a competition sponsored by Tulane University Entrepreneurs Association for a business plan suitable for presentation at a venture capital forum [79].  To further encourage that spirit, Tulane introduced its grantees to the exclusive Plimsoll Club, an elegant venue where business elite and politicians dine and confer amid lush surroundings [80].  Tulane has been ranked among the best universities for entrepreneurship [81], and in 2006 it increased its competitive first prize to $10,000 [82].  By 2009, Tulane's appetite for all things entrepreneurial led to networking in the "non-profit" arena of social services under the moniker "social entrepreneurship," funded by grants, charitable donations, and special interest groups [83].

Apparently, the pursuit of knowledge at some universities has become secondary to the pursuit of profits, with important implications for the public.  The headlong rush toward commercialization has been eagerly embraced by Tulane [84].  Data released by its Office of Technology Transfer (OTT) for fiscal years 1999-2003 indicate that it had 36 patents issued and received gross licensing income of about $44.4 million [85].  Even the destruction caused by Hurricane Katrina could not deter Tulane's biotechnology ambitions [86], and in January, 2007 the university announced a major expansion of facilities in Covington, Louisiana to develop vaccines, diagnostics and therapeutics for infectious diseases [87].  In June, 2007 Tulane received $16 million from the Community Development Block Grants program (CDBG) funded by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) for initiatives designed to commercialize medical research [88].  According to Tulane's interim senior vice president for health sciences, Alan Miller, turning research into capital-generating entrepreneurial ventures is the next step for New Orleans [89].  The question for Louisiana citizens and politicians to consider is whether the state's limited tax dollars should continue to be diverted from programs such as public education to help support the national and international business endeavors of Tulane University, Inc.  That question was answered when ground was broken in 2008 for a $60 million state-funded Bioinnovation Center whose purpose is to adapt university research findings into "salable technology" [90].  The facility will be shared with Louisiana State University.  An alternative has been proposed [91].

Undeterred by the constraints of its own charter, but eager to swell its financial coffers, Tulane in 2009 embarked on an African campaign designed to help exploit the rich oil reserves sequestered beneath the ground of the troubled nations of Nigeria, Angola and Ghana [92].  With $1 million in seed capitol, Tulane created a Center for African Resource Development, an offshoot of its Energy Institute, and bestowed upon itself the responsibility to assist in, and profit from, the extraction of one of Africa's most valuable natural resources [92].  President Scott Cowen crowed: Tulane is "the model university" for our times and "with unlimited potential." [93]


With 2006-07 full-time tuition near $35,000 [94], it is clear that student tuitions remain the single most important financial pillar that supports Tulane University.  The magic generated by Tulane's public relations campaign must be credited for the immediate success of its post-Katrina enrollment.  "When the university opened its doors in January 2006 for the spring semester, 87% of Tulane's students returned to take up where they left off" [95].  However, the attractiveness of New Orleans as a place to live has since deteriorated along with the influx of drugs, crime and illegal immigration [96], and those involved in managing the city's affairs have been described as "buffoons" [97].  Concerns over these matters are reflected, in part, by a growing reluctance of parents to send their children to New Orleans.  Of the 7,500 students whose fall, 2006 applications to Tulane were accepted, only 12% actually enrolled, causing worried administrators to shift their recruitment efforts into high gear [95].  In 2008, sophomores expressed concern over Tulane's campus housing restriction [98] and the numerous surcharges imposed on student activities [99].

Banking on the past success of Tulane's public relations campaigns, President Scott Cowen partnered with New Orleans City Council Vice President Arnie Fielkow (now President) to create a new public relations program designed to counteract the negative image of New Orleans [100].  Fielkow is also an adjunct faculty member of Tulane's Law School [101].  The plan called for dispatching teams of "ambassadors" to major cities around the country to convince media, business councils, civic groups, politicians and philanthropic agencies that New Orleans was about to "return to glory" [100].  Of course, proclamations of glory do not equal glory, and it seemed questionable whether a fresh coat of gilt could hide the ugly reality that the city and its institutions were crumbling from within.  Nevertheless, Tulane's strategic campaign did succeed in attracting many new recruits to its campus, demonstrating once again the effectiveness of Tulane's marketing acumen [102].  The ambassadors next moved on to Washington, D.C. [103] and then to New York City, where a media-savvy delegation met with (and presented gifts to) NBC news anchor Brian Williams [104].  The group's apparent objective is to persuade political leaders and foundation executives to "shovel money" at New Orleans and Tulane in particular [104].  The 2007 campaign was so successful that in 2008, delegations from among 22 ambassadors will visit nine major cities to promote New Orleans [105].

Concurrent with the ambassadors' campaign is Tulane's program of community reconstruction work for college credit, termed "service learning," which is required of all undergraduates, both before and after earning 70 credit hours [106].  Here, Tulane may be following the example of Brown University, which became "the hottest school in the Ivy League" after it abolished traditional standards of higher education in the late 1960s [107].  While many students may flock to Tulane for the opportunity to get college credit without a heavy investment of intellectual effort, the education they receive while "service learning" is substantially vocational training co-taught by professors with contractors, carpenters and other skilled workers.  In other words, students who wish to graduate must pay a hefty tuition fee to obtain eight credit-hours of essentially volunteer work [108].  The scheme is a triumph of academic entrepreneurship at the expense of students who do not understand that their education is being short-changed [109].  Whereas students at Harvard and Yale refer to such courses as "guts" [110], at Tulane they can actually sign up to "gut" houses [111].  Others with altruistic inclinations toward public service can contact organizations such as Habitat for Humanity, where neither experience nor tuition is required [112].

New initiatives for expanding technical education programs in public institutions have now been mandated by Governor Bobby Jindal and are supported by union leaders as well as leaders in the business community [113].  The Louisiana Board of Regents stands ready to restructure the financing and direction of Louisiana's community and technical college system to meet the state's needs in areas such as transportation, professional services, health care, manufacturing and construction [113].  These programs should satisfy all who are serious about receiving technical training and learning vocational skills.  Moreover, they will benefit the state long-term because the individuals they train are likely to remain in Louisiana.


References and Endnotes

  1. Martin Covert, "Ad Reporter; More Tulane," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, Sept. 1, 2002, p. B-2.

  2. "Classes start at Tulane," Sun Herald, Biloxi, MS, August. 28, 2002, http://www.sunherald.com/mld/sunherald/news/breaking_news/3956951.htm, accessed Oct. 6, 2002.

  3. Lynn Rice, "Crossing state lines," Tulane Hullabaloo, Vol. 92, No. 8, 2001, http://hullabaloo.tulane.org/index.php/20011019/news/300/, accessed Oct. 10, 2002.

  4. Coleman Warner, "Tulane gets OK for Gulf Coast branch; Casino courses among offerings," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, Jan. 19, 2002, p. B-1.

  5. CasinoNews, FindInternetCASINO International, Inc., Limassol, Cyprus, http://www.findinternetcasino.com/CasinoNews/200112_3781.htm, accessed Oct. 9, 2002.

  6. Gulf Coast Economy (http://www.mscoast.org/Publications/GulfCoastEconomy/coast_economy_3.html), accessed April 8, 2003.  [Note: The potential of gambling could hardly be exaggerated.  Just three years after Hurricane Katrina had devastated the Gulf Coast region, the gaming industry was flourishing and Biloxi was being hailed as the "Las Vegas of the South."  See: Cindy Chang, The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, May 28, 2008, National, p. 1.]

  7. Joseph C. Canizaro (http://www.traditiongulfcoast.com/page19.html), accessed April 8, 2003.

  8. International Association of Gaming Attorneys (IAGA), Las Vegas, Nevada, http://www.theiaga.org/members/rollcalls/mississippi.html, accessed Oct. 9, 2002.

  9. Andy Kanengiser, "Distance learning requests growing," The Clarion-Ledger, MS (Posted Feb. 9, 2002), http://www.clarionledger.com/news/0202/09/m06.html, accessed Oct. 9, 2002.

  10. "Tulane Casino Course In High Demand on Gulf Coast; All But 3 Slots Filled By Registration Date," TheNewOrleansChannel.com, April 4, 2003.

  11. Coleman Warner, "Higher Education Notes" ... "Boosting minority aid," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, Sept. 8, 2004, p. B-8.

  12. Martin Covert, "Ad Reporter" ... "Back to school," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, Jan. 10, 2005, p. B-2.

  13. Coleman Warner, "Tulane gambling on Indian casino; Exec program offers classes in Mississippi," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, July 3, 2005, p. B-1.  See also: "Pearl River Resort and Tulane University announce casino/resort management courses at the Choctaw Hospitality Institute," [Press Release] Pearl River Resort, June 7, 2005, http://www.pearlriverresort.com/news_press.aspx?id=43, accessed 11/18/06.  See also: Mary Perez, "Casino customer service is key," Sun Herald, Biloxi, MS, April 30, 2008, http://www.sunherald.com/business/story/525541.html, accessed 05/07/08.

  14. "Pearl River Resort and Tulane University announce casino/resort management courses at the Choctaw Hospitality Institute," [Press Release] Pearl River Resort, June 7, 2005, http://www.pearlriverresort.com/news_press.aspx?id=43, accessed 11/18/06.  See also: Tom Wilemon, "Former gaming chief to teach at Tulane; Blackwell invites experts to lecture on casino courses," Sun Herald, Biloxi, MS., May 17, 2006, p. F-3.  See also: "Schedule of Events," International Masters of Gaming Law, Winter Conference, New Orleans, Nov. 30 - Dec. 1, 2006, http://www.gaminglawmasters.com/neworleans/sessions.htm, accessed 11/18/06.

  15. "Students Honored," Tulane University NewWave, April 11, 2008, http://tulane.edu/news/newwave/newssplash_0408.cfm, accessed 04/11/08.

  16. Theo Lutz, "Community college credits applicable to Tulane degree," Tulane Hullabaloo, Vol. 93, No. 17, 2003.

  17. Martin Covert, "Ad Reporter; Newest program," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, Aug. 5, 2004, p. B-2.

  18. Elizabeth Crisp, "2 New Colleges Possible in Metro," The Clarion Ledger, Jackson, Mississippi, June 10, 2009, http://www.clarionledger.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=2009906100361, accessed 06/11/09.  See also: Lucy Weber, "Tulane coming to Madison," MC Herald, Madison County, Mississippi, August 31, 2009.  See also: Kathryn Hobgood, "Tulane University to Open Satellite Campus in Madison, MS" [Press Release] Tulane University, August 31, 2009, http://tulane.edu/news/releases/pr_083109.cfm, accessed 08/31/09  [The new Madison campus will also serve the nearby Jackson area].  See also: Carol J. Schlueter, "Mississippi Town Drafts Tulane," Tulane University NewWave, September 8, 2009, http://tulane.edu/news/newwave/090409_madison.cfm, accessed 09/08/09.  See also: Nicholas Chedid, "New campus to open; Madison, Miss. to be site of continuing studies classes," Tulane Hullabaloo, September 11, 2009, http://thehullabaloo.com/..., accessed 09/14/09.  See also: "New Campus to Open," Tulane University NewWave, April 14, 2010, http://tulane.edu/news/newwave/041410_madison.cfm, accessed 04/14/10.

  19. Bill Barrow, "Tulane to open satellite in B.R.; Med students to work at hospital," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, March 4, 2010, National, p. A-2.

  20. Keith Brannon, "Latin American professors earn Ph.D.'s at Tulane," New Orleans CityBusiness, July 23, 2001, http://www.neworleanscitybusiness.com/viewStory.cfm?recID=1421, accessed 10/17/07.  See also: "Tulane University," BusinessWeek Online, International Programs, (http://www.businessweek.com/bschools/exec_ed/99execmba66.htm), accessed Oct. 22, 2002.  See also: http://www.freeman.tulane.edu/emba/welcome.htm, accessed June 21, 2003.  See also: http://www.tulane.edu/~goldring/LatinAm.htm, accessed Aug. 1, 2004.  See also: James Varney, "Tulane decides degree no stamp of approval," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, Aug. 1, 2004, p. A-8.  See also: Student Handbook (www.sph.tulane.edu/sphtm_handbook.pdf).  See also: Ana Gershanik, "Peruvian hospital teams with Tulane," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, Dec. 9, 2004, p. 8A1.  See also: Michael Strecker, "Tulane University to Start New Business Ph.D. Training Program," Tulane University, [Announcement], October 2, 2007, http://tulane.edu/news/100207.cfm, accessed 10/02/07.  See also: Fran Simon, "Dialogue Opens on the Americas," Tulane University NewWave, January 16, 2008, http://cmsprod1.tcs.tulane.edu/news/newwave/011608_center.cfm, accessed 01/06/08.  See also: Keith Brannon, "Tulane University Gets $400,000 Grant for Global Health Education" [Press Release] Tulane University, October 17, 2008, http://tulane.edu/news/releases/pr_10172008.cfm, accessed 10/17/08.  See also: Deirdre Boling, "Grant Expands University's Global Focus," Tulane University NewWave, October 20, 2008, http://tulane.edu/news/newwave/102008_global_health.cfm, accessed 10/20/08.  See also: Mike Strecker, "Tulane University receives $12.3 million for Latin America studies," Tulane University [News Release] October 13, 2009, http://tulane.edu/news/releases/pr_101309.cfm, accessed 10/13/09.  See also: "Universities Partner with Honduras," Tulane University NewWave, September 9, 2010, http://tulane.edu/news/newwave/090910_honduras.cfm, accessed 09/09/10.

  21. Houston Executive MBA Program (http://www.freeman.tulane.edu/emba/Houston/Houston.htm), accessed June 21, 2003.  See also: "Alexandria Executive MBA," (http://www.freeman.tulane.edu/emba/alex), accessed August 3, 2006.  See also: Station KDAQ, Shreveport, 89.9 FM, [Commercial Announcement], August 3, 2006.  See also: "From the Dean," Freeman School of Business, Tulane University, http://www.freeman.tulane.edu/news/deanmessage.htm, October, 2006, accessed 12/19/06.

  22. Stewart Yerton, "Houston or Bust?  Houston is drawing energy interests like a magnet, inevitably draining places like New Orleans of talent and energy jobs.  Even Tulane University has moved a program westward." The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, May 30, 2004, p. F-1.

  23. Tina Soong, "Tulane, Taiwan joins hands in stem cell research project," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, Aug. 14, 2003, p. 4A1.  In 2009, Tulane entered into an agreement with Repair Technologies Inc. of Palo Alto, Calif. to produce stem cells from bone marrow.  See: Mike Strecker, "Tulane Enters Into Agreement To Produce Adult Stem Cells" [News Release] Tulane University, September 14, 2009, http://tulane.edu/news/releases/adult-stem-cells.cfm, accessed 09/14/09.  See also: John Pope, "Restored art from SUNO on exhibit; Pieces were affected by Katrina flood," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, September 21, 2009, Metro, p. 1.

  24. Coleman Warner, "Program finances professorships," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, Aug. 27, 2002, p. A-2.  Note also: State funding provided $4.7 million for professorships in 2001 (http://www.tulane.edu/~strplan/accomplishments00-01.shtml), accessed May 18, 2003.

  25. Coleman Warner, "Higher Education Notes; Tulane center gets grant," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, Nov. 16, 2002, p. B-6.

  26. "Applause; New chair invested," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, Jan. 30, 2003, p. 6A1.

  27. John Pope, "University medical schools are building on teamwork," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, Feb. 13, 2003, p. C-1.

  28. "Applause; Endowment presented," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, June 19, 2003, p. 4A1.

  29. Coleman Warner, "La. colleges add to endowed positions; $20 million will help recruit, keep scholars," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, Aug. 21, 2003, p. B-3.

  30. "La. colleges get money for chairs, professorships; Public and private campuses benefit," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, August 12, 2004, p. B-8.

  31. Office of Contractual Review, State of Louisiana, OCR Annual Report 2001-2002 (http://www.state.la.us/ocr/annualreports.htm), p. 16, accessed April 8, 2003.

  32. Margo Adler, "Biggest and brightest," Tulane Hullabaloo, Vol. 94, No. 1, August, 22, 2003.

  33. [A] John Pope, "Most La. medical school grads heading out of state," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, Mar. 21, 2003, p. B-8.  [B] John Pope, "Future doctors stay in-house; Majority of grads to get start in state; Tulane retention rate trails LSU," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, Mar. 18, 2005, p. C-1.  [C] Keith Darcé and John Pope, "Katrina blows away bunch of LSU medical graduates; In-state residency dip is largest in 17 years," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, Mar. 17, 2006, p. A-1.  [D] John Pope, "Match Points; 50% of new LSU doctors will stay in state to train, a shot in the arm for health care," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, March 21, 2008, Metro, p. 1.  [E] In 2008, fewer than 15% of Tulane's new medical students were Louisiana residents.  See: Arthur Nead, "Medicine Class of 2012 Enters World of Doctors," Tulane University NewWave, August 6, 2008, http://tulane.edu/news/newwave/080608_whitecoat.cfm, accessed 08/06/08.

  34. "Teacher pay raise," posted Monday, June 10, 2002 at 6:50 a.m., KATC TV3 Online, Lafayette, LA, (http://www.katc.com).  See also: Ed Anderson, "Foster likely to freeze state agency spending; Revenue shortfall over $100 million," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, Aug. 15, 2002 (Archives).

  35. In 2004, teachers' annual salaries will increase an average of about $300, barely covering increases in health insurance costs.  See: "Disappointing!  State leaders fail to raise salaries for teachers and school employees," Louisiana Teacher, September, 2004, p. 1 (Louisiana Federation of Teachers, Baton Rouge, LA).

  36. Ed Anderson, "La. agencies facing more budget cuts; Administration expects to trim $162 million but total may rise," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, Oct. 11, 2002, p. A-1.

  37. Administrators of the Tulane Educational Fund, IRS Form 990 for 2001 (See also: 1997-2000), Schedule A, Part VI-B, line g.

  38. US/CHINA Energy & Environmental Technology Center, "CHINA EETC Annual Report," http://www.tulane.edu/~uschina/EETC3/report/report1.html, accessed Oct. 22, 2002.

  39. By July, 2004, Tulane's endowment had grown to $722 million.  See: Coleman Warner, "Tulane rolls in green wave: 2 donate $30 million each; Alumni's Internet riches to fuel merit scholarships," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, July 29, 2004, p. A-1.

  40. Brian Thevenot, "Talks begin on Lusher high school; Some ask about financing for Tulane-school partnership plan," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, October 25, 2003, p. A-1.  See also: "Tulane University Neighborhood Relations," http://www2.tulane.edu/neighbors/lusher_photos.cfm, accessed 10/25/03.

  41. Aesha Rasheed, "Board considers adding 2 schools; Military magnet, Lusher high urged," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, February 6, 2004, p. A-1.  See also: Una Anderson, "Orleans schools welcome true collaboration," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, February 14, 2004, p. B-6.

  42. NOPS Possibilities, Vol. 1, Issue 1, Tulane University, December, 2003.  (Newsletter widely distributed to public school personnel.)

  43. "Tulane Teacher Preparation and Certification Program and New Orleans Public Schools," http://teacher.tulane.edu/visitation.pdf, accessed 5/20/04.

  44. Catherine Fox, "Tulane and Lusher move to create potential magnet high school," Tulane Hullabaloo, Vol. 94, No. 17, February 13, 2004.  See also: Brian Thevenot, "Lusher High plans not by book; Admissions, location are topics of dispute," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, March 10, 2005, p. A-1.  See also: Brian Thevenot, "Besieged Amato calls it quits; Schools chief suffered utter loss of support," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, April 13, 2005, p. A-1.

  45. Bruce Eggler, "Tall order," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, January 25, 2004, p. B-1.  See also: Bruce Eggler, "Planners defer vote on 2 hot issues; Locals blast plan for condo, campus," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, January 28, 2004, p. B-1.

  46. Bruce Eggler, "Tulane project OK challenged; Suit claims decision based on flawed study," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, May 28, 2004, p. B-1.

  47. Coleman Warner, "Tulane scholars improve lives overseas," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, Nov. 4, 2002, p. B-2.  See also: PBS Frontline, "Ghosts of Rwanda," http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/ghosts/, accessed 12/28/06.  See also: Fran Simon, "Help for the people of Rwanda," Tulane University NewWave, November 7, 2007, http://tulane.edu/news/newwave/110707_rwanda.cfm, accessed 11/07/07.

  48. Coleman Warner, "Higher Education Notes ... UNC kicks in $9.2 million," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, Oct. 31, 2003, p. B-1.  See also: Joan Treadway, "Helping Orphans; Tulane program works with Rwandan children who are raising siblings," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, July 18, 2004, p. B-1.

  49. Madeline Vann, "4.47 Million Awarded to Mentor Public Health Officials," Tulane University Magazine - News, September, 2006, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=6802, accessed 09/19/06.  See also: Madeline Vann, "Tulane to Mentor Public Health Pros," Tulane University Magazine - News, September, 22, 2006, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=6810, accessed 09/23/06.

  50. "Payson Team to Lead Child Labor Study," Tulane University Magazine - News, October 9, 2006, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=6847, accessed 10/09/06.

  51. Arthur Nead, "USAID Awards $3.5 Million Health Systems Grant," Tulane University Magazine - News, February 7, 2007, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=7107, accessed 03/14/07.

  52. Arthur Nead, "Tulane University Researcher Receives $2.5 Million to Lead Global Maternal and Child Health Team," Tulane University Magazine - News, June, 2007, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=7436, accessed 06/28/07.  See also: The NewWave Staff, "Tulane Leads Global Maternal and Child-Health Team," Tulane University Magazine - News, July 17, 2007, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=7462, accessed 07/17/07.

  53. Keith Brannon, "Tulane University to Receive $14 Million for International HIV/AIDS Program" [Press Release] September 7, 2007, http://tulane.edu/news/releases/090707.cfm, accessed 09/07/07.  See also: Jillian Berner, "School of Public Health receives $14 million grant," Tulane Hullabaloo, October 12, 2007, http://media.www.thehullabaloo.com/..., accessed 10/15/07.  Note that in 2009, Tulane tested the waters in Malaysia to see if it could obtain grant support for studying the HIV/AIDS epidemic there.  See: Fran Simon, "Hands-On Learning in Malaysia," Tulane University NewWave, July 31, 2009, http://tulane.edu/news/newwave/073009_malaysia.cfm, accessed 07/31/09.

  54. John Pope, "Tulane gets grant for disease research," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, February 11, 2010, Metro, p.B1.

  55. Ana Gershanik, "Tulane opens global health center," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, September 16, 2004, p.6A1.

  56. John Pope, "Cancer-growth gene can be inactivated, scientists find; Work at LSU may lead to new treatments," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, June 17, 2009, National, p.8.  See also: Ana Gershanik, "Latin-American artist making mark in N.O.," [Nuestro Pueblo] The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, July 16, 2008, p. 6.  See also: Arthur Nead, "Peru Trip Fosters Global Cooperation," Tulane University NewWave, July 6, 2009, http://tulane.edu/news/newwave/070609_peru.cfm, accessed 07/06/09.

  57. Memo from Brian Rosborough to Scott Cowen, Yvette Jones and John McLachlan, November 13, 2004, http://green.tulane.edu/envsummit/docs/Env_Summit_BRosborough.pdf, accessed 12/28/06.

  58. Tina Soong, "Tulane offers new Asia Elite program," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, June 10, 2004, p. 6A1.  See also: "Internationalizing the EMBA [Executive MBA Program]," The Business of Research, A.B. Freeman School of Business, Tulane University, Summer, 1999, http://www.freeman.tulane.edu/freemanmag/summer99/summer1999.pdf, accessed 05/07/08.  See also: "China Public Health Summer Program Abroad," Tulane University Health Systems Management, http://www.sph.tulane.edu/hsm/pages/programs/phsummer.htm, accessed 05/07/08.
    [A] Tina Soong, "Tulane University to hold summer program in China," [To The Rim] The Times-Picayune, June 25, 2009, p. 7.  See also: Madeline Vann, "Students Explore Chinese Health System," Tulane University NewWave, September 18, 2009, http://tulane.edu/news/newwave/091809_china.cfm, accessed 09/18/09.
    [B] Tina Soong, "Tulane president, others tour Taiwan universities," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, December 10, 2009, New Orleans Picayune, p. B 7.  See also: Tina Soong, "Tulane University leads course in Taiwan," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, September 9, 2010, New Orleans Picayune, p. B 4
    [C] "Med School Partners With China Hospital," Tulane University NewWave, December 1, 2009, http://tulane.edu/news/newwave/120109_china_partnership.cfm, accessed 12/01/09.  See also: Tina Soong, "Tulane medical school work with Chinese peers," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, December 24, 2009, New Orleans Picayune, p. B 5.

  59. "Listing of International Activities of the School of Medicine," http://www.tulane.edu/~intprog/Medicine/Appendix.html, accessed June 5, 2004.

  60. Jane Waldron Grutz, "A Commitment to Excellence," Saudi Aramco World, Vol. 44, No. 2, March/April 1993.

  61. Muzamil Hassan Abdelgadir, Talal Hussein Al-Beyari, Aladin Hadi Al-Amri, Naseem Akthar Qureshi and Abdel-Nasser A. Abuzeid, "Innovative Health Education Project in Al-Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia," (1995) http://www.emro.who.int/Publications/EMHJ/0102/16.htm, accessed June 5, 2004.

  62. Kathryn Hobgood, "Tulane Hosts Symposium on U.S. and Islamic World Relations," Tulane University Magazine - News, February 22, 2007, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=7146, accessed 02/22/07.  See also: Kathryn Hobgood, "Free Symposium Promotes Understanding of Islam," Tulane University Magazine - News, February 26, 2007, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=7148, accessed 02/26/07.

  63. Office of Fossil Energy, United States Department of Energy, Grant No. 75-02SW52061.

  64. Coleman Warner, "Profesor aids China in design of cities; Foreign mayors hear N.O. land-use lessons," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, Nov. 25, 2003, p. B-1.  See also: Coleman Warner, "Higher Education Notes" ... "Tulane professor, aids give Chinese city new blueprint," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, Feb. 9, 2004, p. B-1.  See also: Coleman Warner, "Chinese team studies local planning; Tulane experts teach lessons on land use," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, June 28, 2004, p. B-1.  See also: Coleman Warner, "Higher Education Notes" ... "Chinese mayors visit Tulane," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, Aug. 13, 2005, p. B-1.
    [A] Tina Soong, "Registration to begin for Chinese academy," [To The Rim] The Times-Picayune, December 31, 2009, p. 7.

  65. Mary Perez, "Casino customer service is key," Sun Herald, Biloxi, MS, April 30, 2008, http://www.sunherald.com/business/story/525541.html, accessed 05/07/08.

  66. Keith Brannon, "Tulane Students Say 'Ni Hao' to China," Tulane University NewWave, August 11, 2008, http://tulane.edu/news/newwave/081108_tulane_china.cfm, accessed 08/12/08.

  67. Bruce Alpert and Bill Walsh, "On the Hill; News from the Louisiana delegation in the nation's capital," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, Oct. 21, 2001, p. A-5.

  68. Bruce Alpert, "Spike in conservation budget debated," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, July 17, 2002, p. A-4.

  69. Tina Soong, "Tulane chemist set to visit peers in China," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, June 3, 2004, p. 2A1.

  70. Tina Soong, "Taiwan medical school forms links to Tulane," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, March 15, 2007, p. 13.  See also: Tina Soong, "Tulane plans to offer Shanghai program," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, April 3, 2008, Kenner Picayune, p. 3.

  71. "International University in Geneva," Wikipedia, November 16, 2006, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_University_in_Geneva, accessed 11/21/06.

  72. "Galaxy Explorers," Global Network Space Newsletter, 13, Fall, 2002, http://www.globenet.free-online.co.uk/newsletter/gnnews13.htm, accessed 7/19/04.

  73. Coleman Warner, "Entergy, Tulane form center on energy issues; Institute may attract research investment," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, Nov. 22, 2003, p. B-8.

  74. Coleman Warner, "UNO poised to be costal restoration mecca; Bill would bring flood of economic activity" ... "Supercomputer at Tulane," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, March 26, 2005, p. B-4.  See also: "Supercomputers Will Help Solve U.S. Energy Blackout Equation," (Press Release, May 23, 2005), Mechanical Web Directory (http://www.mechdir.com/press/catalog/70/), accessed 6/6/05.

  75. Pam Radtke Russell, "Entergy awards $737,457 in grants," The Times-Picayune [Blog], New Orleans, May 21, 2007, http://blog.nola.com/tpmoney/2007/05/entergy_awards_737457_in_grant.html, accessed May 23, 2007.

  76. Ana Gershanik, "Latin American law focus of seminar," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, August, 26, 2004, p. 18A1.  See also: "Tulane Latin American Law Institute," http://www.law.tulane.edu/cdo/inst/2004lali.pdf, accessed Aug. 26, 2004.

  77. Coleman Warner, "Latin American law forum to aid economic growth; Business leaders, Tulane form institute," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, Feb. 21, 2002, p. B-1.

  78. Sheldon Krimsky, Science in the Private Interest: Has the Lure of Profits Corrupted Biomedical Research? Rowman & Littlefield, 2003.  See also: Eyal Press and Jennifer Washburn, "The Kept University," The Atlantic Monthly, Vol. 285, No. 3 (March, 2000), pp. 39-54.  See also: Charles J. Sykes, ProfScam: Professors and the Demise of Higher Education (Chapter 13, "Beyond the Dreams of Avarice: The Sciences," pp. 224-240), Regnery Gateway, Washington, D.C., 1988.  See also: Lawrence C. Soley, Leasing the Ivory Tower: The Corporate Takeover of Academia, South End Press, Boston, 1995.  See also: Derek Bok, Universities in the Marketplace: The Commercialization of Higher Education, Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 2003.  See also: Jennifer Washburn, University, Inc.: The Corporate Corruption of Higher Education, Basic Books, New York, 2005, 326 pp.  [Note: Washburn's book is required reading for anyone concerned with the commercialization of medical research.]  See also: Philip Mirowski, Science-Mart: Privatizing American Science, Harvard University Press, 2011, 464 pp.  [How the fruits of scientific investigation — once considered a public good that should be available to all — have become commodities to be monitized, thereby blurring the distinction between universities and for-profit corporations.]

  79. "Tulane competition rates business plans," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, March 23, 2004, p. C-4.  In 2006, aspiring entrepreneurs competed for $30,000 in cash prizes. See: "Freeman among nation's best for entrepreneurship," Freeman School of Business, Tulane University, http://www.freeman.tulane.edu/news/091506_entrepreneur_ranking.htm, October 2, 2006, accessed 12/19/06.

  80. John Pope, "Universities trumpet increase in research grants," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, June 20, 2004, p. B-1.  See also: New Orleans Council of Business Economists, http://www.nabe.com/chapters/nomeet.htm, accessed June 24, 2004.

  81. Michael Strecker, "Tulane Ranked Among Best for Entrepreneurship," Tulane University Magazine - News, September 18, 2006, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=6796, accessed 09/18/06.  See also: "Entrepreneur & The Princeton Review's 4th Annual Top 25 Entrepreneural Colleges for Graduates," Entrepreneur, October, 2006, http://www.entrepreneur.com/topcolleges/grad/index.html, accessed 12/25/06.  See also: Keith Brannon, "Financial Times Names Tulane University Among World's Top 10 Schools for Finance," Tulane University [News Release], http://tulane.edu/news/releases/012808.cfm, accessed 01/28/08.

  82. Mark Miester, "Freeman Ranked Among Best in Entrepreneurship," Tulane University NewWave, November 13, 2007, http://tulane.edu/news/newwave/111307_business.cfm, accessed 11/13/07.  See also: Keith Brannon, "Tulane Entrepreneurs Association Kicks Off 8th Annual Business Plan Contest" [Press Release] Tulane University, April 15, 2008, http://tulane.edu/news/releases/pr-04152008.cfm, accessed 04/15/08.

  83. Mike Strecker, "Tulane University Focuses on Social Entrepreneurship" [Press Release] Tulane University, September 8, 2009, http://tulane.edu/news/releases/pr_090809.cfm, accessed 09/08/09.  See also: Ashoka: Innovators for the Public, http://www.ashoka.org/waystogive?gclid=CI3Th9fe4pwCFQ2fnAod9CfWIg, accessed 09/08/09.  See also: "Looking for 'Changemakers'," Tulane University NewWave, August 25, 2010, http://tulane.edu/news/newwave/082510_changemakers.cfm, accessed 08/25/10.

  84. Stephen Miles, "An open letter to Scott Cowen regarding the state of Tulane," Tulane Hullabaloo [Archives], April 30, 2004, http://media.www.thehullabaloo.com/..., accessed 01/16/07.

  85. "Tulane Technology Transfer Statistics," Tulane University Office of Technology Development, http://www.som.tulane.edu/techdev/stats.html, accessed June 30, 2005.

  86. "New Orleans City Council approves demolition to make way for construction of biotech center," CityBusiness, New Orleans, March 7, 2005.  See also: Fran Simon, "Tulane to Announce Opening of New Facility to Manufacture Adult Stem Cells," Tulane University Magazine - News, July, 2006, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=6653, accessed 07/17/06.  See also: Fran Simon, "BioInnovation Center Gets a Boost," Tulane University Magazine - News, June 13, 2006, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=6578, accessed 03/07/07.

  87. Madeline Vann, "Expansion of Tulane Research Facilities Brings Money, Jobs to Northshore," Tulane University Magazine - News, January, 2007, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=7074, accessed 01/25/07.  See also: Madeline Vann, "Expansion of Tulane Research Facilities Brings Money, Jobs to Northshore," Tulane University Magazine - News, January 26, 2007, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=7082, accessed 01/26/07.  See also: Bruce Hamilton, "Tulane primate center kicking off expansion; Upgraded research facility estimated price tag is $63 million," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, January 27, 2007, p. A-1.

  88. Kathryn Hobgood, "Regents Boost Tulane Research," Tulane University Magazine - News, June 29, 2007, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=7437, accessed 06/29/07.  See also: BayouBuzz, "Major Louisiana Regents Funding for Education," June 28, 2007, http://www.bayoubuzz.com/News/Louisiana/Government/..., accessed 07/02/07.

  89. Madeline Vann, "Rolling on the River," Tulane University Magazine - News, March 7, 2007, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=7171, accessed 03/07/07.

  90. Kate Moran, "Lab project posed to rise in N.O.; Business, research to mix at biocenter," The Times-Picayune, August 19, 2008 [National, p. 1].

  91. Carl Bernofsky, "Two Public Policy Issues Regarding Tulane University of Louisiana: The Legislative Scholarship Program; and is Tulane Private or Public?" White Paper, July 10, 2003.

  92. Jen DeGregorio, "Tulane sharpens focus on oil in Africa; Landrieu spearheads push for closer ties," The Times-Picayune, October 11, 2009 [Money, p. 1].

  93. Fran Simon, "A Helluva 175th," Tulane University NewWave, October 12, 2009, http://tulane.edu/news/newwave/101209_homecoming.cfm, accessed 10/12/09.

  94. "Tulane University Facts, Stats and Admissions Information," Yahoo! Education [From Peterson's], http://education.yahoo.com/college/facts/9037.html, accessed 01/01/07.

  95. Nick Marinello, "In That Number; Getting undergraduates to enroll in pre-Katrina numbers will take hard work, a good plan and no option to do otherwise," Tulane University Magazine - News, Winter, 2007, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=7217, accessed 03/27/07. See also: Terry O'Connor, "Top 100 Private Companies: Special Focus Issue," New Orleans CityBusiness, March 19, 2007.

  96. Theodore Duplessis, "The Mexican Illegal Immigrant Effect on New Orleans," Creole Folks [Blog], March 26, 2007, http://creoleneworleans.typepad.com/creole_folks/2007/03/the_mexican_eff.html, accessed 04/06/07.  See also: Adam Nossiter and Christopher Drew, "Dysfunction Fuels Cycle of Killing in New Orleans, The New York Times, February 5, 2007, http://select.nytimes.com/search/restricted/article?res=F10915FF385B0C768CDDAB0894DF404482, accessed 04/10/07.  See also: Bruce Eggler, "Groups call off meetings in N.O.; Blight, crime fear scares off visitors," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, March 30, 2007 [Money, p. 1].  See also: Kevin Johnson, "Feds target violent crime in New Orleans," USA TODAY, June 3, 2007, http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2007-06-03-new-orleans-crime_N.htm?csp=34, accessed 06/12/07.  See also: Brendan McCarthy, "NOPD data show violent crime has increased; Situation 'absolutely not' good, Riley says, citing difficult 2 years," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, August 17, 2007 [National, p. 1].  See also: Editorial, "Violence moves east," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, September 2, 2007 [Metro, p. 6].  See also: Report, "Guard troops to stay through June; Jindal vows to keep support for NOPD," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, January 10, 2008 [Metro, p. 1].  See also: Laura Maggi and Katy Reckdahl, "A year ago today, New Orleans residents outraged by violent crime took to the streets demanding change ... and while some progress has been noted, New Orleans remains among the deadliest cities in the nation," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, January 11, 2008 [National, p. 1].    See also: Bruce Eggler, "Security districts develop budgets; N.O. City Council gives nod to spending plans," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, January 21, 2008 [Metro, p. 1].  [Police protection in many neighborhoods is now supplemented with a levy for additional security and patrols.  The mean annual levy for the 15 districts reported is about $300 per residence.]  See also: Brendan McCarthy, "Violent crime in N.O. is soaring, maybe; TP analysis outpaces the police statistics," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, February 18, 2008 [National, p. 1].  See also: Gwen Filosa, "Appeals judge quits to pursue Orleans DA job; 'Urban terrorists' are his target," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, May 1, 2008 [Metro, p. 1].  [Judge Leon Cannizzaro, who resigned fom the state Appellate Court in order to run for district attorney, stated: "How can I be comfortable when the crime rate has reached an all-time high?  It is an epidemic out there, and quite honestly, there is very little being done about it."]  See also: Laura Maggi, "Violent crime surges in N.O.; Armed holdups rise sharply in statistics," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, May 6, 2008 [National, p. 1].  See also: "City Crime Rankings 2008-2009," CQ Press, http://www.cqpress.com/pages/citycrime2008, accessed 11/24/08 [New Orleans ranked No. 1 for murder in 2008].  See also: Brendan McCarthy, "Overall N.O. crime rate leads U.S., study says; Not my fault, Riley replies," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, November 25, 2008 [Metro, p. 1].  See also: Andrew Hague, "Students and visitors must be aware of danger," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, February 28, 2009, [Metro, p. 4].  See also: Leslie Williams and Martha Carr, "5 in N.O. shot over weekend; 2 wounded in stabbing incident," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, August 24, 2010, [Metro, p. 3].  See also: Doug Barry, "Tulane University Students Invoke 'Widespread Rape' in Calling for Increased Off-Campus Security," Jezebel, January 28, 2012, http://jezebel.com/5877160/tulane-university-students-invoke-widespread-rape-in-calling-for-increased-off+campus-security, accessed 03/06/2012.  See also: Brendan McCarthy, "Crime trends higher in N.O.; Murders, thefts alike proliferated in 2011," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, March 7, 2012 [National, p. 1].

  97. Adam Nossiter, "Steering New Orleans's Recovery With a Clinical Eye," The New York Times, April 10, 2007, http://select.nytimes.com/search/restricted/article?res=FA0D1FFC3E5B0C738DDDAD0894DF404482#, accessed 05/28/07.  See also: Frank Donze, "Recovery chief urged to mind his tongue; Mayor finds himself policing rhetoric," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, April 13, 2007 [Metro, p. 1].  See also: James Gill, "Is Blakely smart, or just smart-mouthed?" The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, April 22, 2007 [Metro, p. 7].

  98. Jeff Silberman, "The Tyrants Among Us: HRL's Grave Injustices," Tulane Hullabaloo, October 3, 2008.

  99. "Tulane's Money Mystery," [Editorial] Tulane Hullabaloo, September 19, 2008.

  100. Bruce Eggler, "Local leaders tout N.O. nationwide; They aim to counter negative perceptions," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, March 24, 2007, p. A-1.  See also: The NewWave Staff, "Waving the Fleur-De-Lis Flag," Tulane University Magazine - News, March 28, 2007, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=7225, accessed 03/28/07.  See also: Bruce Eggler, "N.O. ambassadors plan trip to Boston; Travels intended to polish city image," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, April 12, 2007, p. B-1.  See also: The NewWave Staff, "Fleur-De-Lis Ambassadors Debut," Tulane University Magazine - News, April 17, 2007, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=7292, accessed 04/17/07.

  101. Tulane University Law School, "Part-Time Faculty," http://www.law.tulane.edu/tlsfaculty/index.aspx?id=492, accessed 12/07/07.  See also: Bruce Nolan, "Hate-symbol limits put on hold in N.O.; Author addressing free-speech concerns," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, December 7, 2007, Metro, p. 3.

  102. Joe Gayon, Jr. "Tulane's enrollment surges past '07 goal," The Advocate, Baton Rouge, May 12, 2007, p. 18-A.  See also: John Pope, "Three local colleges surpass goals for fall term; High school seniors' deposits pouring in," The Times-Picayune, May 12, 2008, [National, p. 1].

  103. Kimberly Quillen, "Fleur-de-lis Ambassadors to visit Washington, D.C. this week," The Times-Picayune [Blog], New Orleans, June 25, 2007, http://blog.nola.com/tpmoney/2007/06/fleurdelis_ambassadors_to_visi_1.html, accessed 06/27/07.  See also: "Ambassadors pleased wih D.C., Atlanta trips," New Orleans CityBusiness, July 16, 2007.

  104. Bruce Nolan, "N.O. citizen activists spreading the word; Message: The city is coming back," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, October 9, 2007, National, p. A-1.  See also: Kimberly Quillen, "Fleur-de-lis Ambassadors to visit New York City," The Times-Picayune [Blog], New Orleans, October 2, 2007, http://blog.nola.com/tpmoney/2007/10/fleurdelis_ambassadors_to_visi_2.html, accessed 10/04/07.

  105. Bruce Eggler, "Recovery story to be told again; 'Ambassadors' to fan out across U.S.," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, March 8, 2008, Metro, p. 1.  See also: "Fleur-de-lis Ambassadors," Tulane University NewWave, March 18, 2008, http://tulane.edu/news/newwave/newssplash_0308.cfm, accessed 03/18/08.

  106. "Undergraduate Core Curriculum, 2007-2008, Newcomb-Tulane College, Tulane University," http://advising.tulane.edu/documents/corecurriculum5_07.pdf, accessed 03/23/08.  See also: Fran Simon, "Center for Public Service Up and Running," Tulane University Magazine - News, August 22, 2006, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=6724, accessed 03/21/07.  See also: Nick Marinello, "Volunteers Build Ties to Community," Tulane University Magazine - News, September 13, 2007, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=7570, accessed 09/13/07.  See also: Fran Simon, "Faculty Grants Energize Public-Service Courses," Tulane University Magazine - News, October 2, 2007, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=7611, accessed 10/02/07.  See also: Kiley Brown, "House No. 3 Rises for URBANbuild," Tulane University NewWave, February 1, 2008, http://tulane.edu/news/newwave/020108_urbanbuild.cfm, accessed 02/01/08.  See also: "Double Pledge," Tulane University NewWave, March 19, 2008, http://tulane.edu/news/newwave/newssplash_0308.cfm, accessed 03/19/08.

  107. Charles J. Sykes, ProfScam: Professors and the Demise of Higher Education, Regnery Gateway, Washington, D.C., 1988, pp. 90-92.

  108. "Nick Marinello, "Undergraduate Applications at Record Level," Tulane University NewWave, March 3, 2008, http://tulane.edu/news/newwave/030308_admissions.cfm, accessed 03/03/08.  See also: Barri Bronston, "Jeff turns to Tulane for teachers; Spanish-speaking adults will get English lessons from students," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, March 26, 2008, Metro, p. 1.

  109. According to Charles J. Sykes, op. cit., p. 260, “The undergraduate curriculum should be centered on the intellectual tradition of Western civilization.  Quite simply, there are certain books and certain authors that every college graduate should read if he [or she] is to be considered truly educated.  Whether it is in the form of general education or a core curriculum, its designers should not hesitate to insist on a prescribed curriculum for underclassmen that would ensure that all students are exposed to the basic classics of Western thought.”

  110. Charles J. Sykes, op. cit., pp. 95-97.

  111. "Rebuilding with Sophie the Riveter," Tulane University NewWave, January 25, 2008, http://tulane.edu/news/newwave/012508_sophie.cfm, accessed 01/26/08.

  112. "Happenings" — Volunteer Program, The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, March 23, 2008, National, p. 25.  See also: "New Orleans Area Habitat for Humanity," http://www.habitat-nola.org, accessed 03/24/08.

  113. Robert Travis Scott, "Technical training focus of proposal by governor; Plan would replace Department of Labor," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, March 26, 2008, National, p. 2.

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