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Judge Frank Burton Ellis
(1907-1969)

A Brief Biography and Selective Genealogy

 
Frank Burton Ellis was born February 10, 1907 in Covington, St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana and died in Tangipahoa Parish, Louisiana on November 5, 1969.1  To understand the important role he played in the Civil Rights Movement, one needs to look at his experience, the times in which he lived, and the great influence of his family's heritage on his judicial decisions.
 

Judge Ellis received his LL.B. degree from Louisiana State University Law School in 1929 and engaged in the private practice of law until 1961 while also pursuing a career in politics.  He became Special Assistant Attorney General in Louisiana and in 1940 was elected to the Louisiana State Senate where he later served as President Pro Tem until 1944.2

Ellis was a Louisiana Delegate to the Democratic Party's national conventions in 1948, 1952 and 1956.3  During the November, 1948 re-election campaign of Harry Truman, the Louisiana delegation stood solidly with the Mississippi, Alabama, and South Carolina delegations as the States Rights coalition ("Dixiecrats") that opposed racial integration and fought to preserve Jim Crow laws and racial segregation.  The Party slogan then was "Segregation Forever!"4

In 1961, Ellis was appointed to the National Security Council, and between 1961 and 1962 he served as National Director for the Office of Emergency Planning in the Kennedy administration.  When President John F. Kennedy was called upon to find a replacement for the embattled U.S. Fifth Circuit Judge James Skelly Wright in New Orleans, he turned to Ellis to fill that vacancy.5

On February 2, 1962, President Kennedy nominated Ellis as Judge of U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana.  His elevation to the bench was soon confirmed by the U.S. Senate, and Ellis received his Commission on April 12, 1962.5  That same year, on December 5, 1962, Ellis's ruling in Guillory v. Administrators of Tulane University of Louisiana would reverse the hard-won gains for racial equality in education that had been made by Judge Wright, and it set a strong precedent for restricted racial freedom for years to come.

“He approached civil rights litigation with a strong concern for local white opinion and a determination to avoid drastic actions that would destabilize established educational institutions.  Ellis's early years on the bench were marked by his evident desire to slow down and scale back Skelly Wright's ambitious agenda for the integration of New Orleans Public Schools, and he approached the Tulane case in a similar spirit of judicial retrenchment.”6

To understand the influences that were brought to bear upon his ruling in the Guillory case, one needs to consider the thinking regarding race relations that prevailed in the South before and during that period and the strong influence that Ellis' family had on him.

Tulane University of Louisiana was founded in 1884 during the period of Reconstruction that followed the Civil War, and it had a Board of Administrators, faculty and student body that largely reflected the feelings of the antebellum South toward race and race relations.  As late as the 1960s — after the 1954 Brown vs. Board of Education decision had ushered in the civil rights era — Tulane, New Orleans and the Times-Picayune, the city's leading newspaper, all resisted integration which was the biggest civil rights issue of the day.

It surprised no one that this ambitious new judge would rule as he did, given the intense pressure of adjudicating a case in an atmosphere hostile to integration, and with Ellis himself burdened by a familial predisposition that reflected the beliefs, prejudices and mores passed down by generations of his ancestors.

Born into a prominent and influential family, Ellis came from a long line of Southerners with strong ties to Confederate causes.  Most of his ancestors who lived in the 1880's were attorneys, judges and highly-placed politicians.  Many owned slaves and as young men had fought in the Civil War (1861-1865) for the Confederates.  Those who were lawyers and judges received their law degrees from Louisiana State University or the University of Louisiana before it became privatized in 1884 as Tulane University of Louisiana.

Through his familial relationships and marriage to Alice Grima, Ellis was deeply steeped in Southern traditions of segregation, racial discrimination and slavery, and it was understandable that he would favor an institution with which family members were associated and whose segregationist policies were in harmony with their own.  The abridged genealogy that follows will illustrate the source of familial influences that not only gave direction to Ellis' vocational choices but ultimately helped shape his judicial decision in Guillory.

Frank Burton Ellis' Fraternal Branch

Harvey Eugene Ellis (b. 1875)7

Frank Burton Ellis' father was Harvey Eugene Ellis, a lawyer8 who was Founder and President of St. Tammany Banking Company.9  Harvey Eugene's brother, Thomas Stephen Ellis (b. 1870),10 also was a lawyer.11

Harvey Eugene Ellis' father, Ezekiel John Ellis (b. 1840),12 was a lawyer13 and politician who fought in the Civil War as a Confederate14 and served in the Louisiana State Senate, the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate.15  One of Ezekiel John's brothers, Stephen Dudley Ellis (b. 1845),16 also a lawyer, fought in the Civil War as a Confederate,17 served as District Attorney in St. Tammany Parish,18 and became Judge of Louisiana's State Appellate Court.19  Ezekiel John's other brother, Thomas Cargill Warner Ellis (b. 1836),20 also a lawyer, fought in the Civil War as a Confederate,21 served as a Louisiana State Senator,22 taught law at Tulane23 and was Judge of Civil District Court in New Orleans for 30 years.24

In 1875, Ezekiel John Ellis and his brother Thomas formed a law partnership with John McEnery,25 who had been elected a Louisiana judge,26 served in the Louisiana legislature27 and was temporarily Governor of Louisiana in 1873.28  John McEnery was a Lieutenant Colonel in the Confederate army29 and was severely wounded more than once.27  After the Civil War, he resumed the practice of law and cultivated cotton.27  He owned 7 slaves in 1860.30

John McEnery's brother, Samuel Douglas McEnery, was the Governor of Louisiana (1881-1888)31 who signed the Louisiana Act of 1884 that privatized the University of Louisiana as the Tulane University of Louisiana.32  After leaving the governorship, he was appointed Justice of the Louisiana Supreme Court,33 and later was elected to the United States Senate.34  Like his brother John, Samuel Douglas McEnery was commissioned as a lieutenant in the Confederate State Army.35

Ezekiel John Ellis was married to Josephine Emily Margaret Chamberlain (b. 1842),36 whose father, Harvey Chamberlain (b. 1813),37 was a planter38 who owned 15 slaves in 185039 and 40 slaves in 1860.40  Josephine Chamberlain's brother, Silas McKeen Chamberlain (b. 1839),41 fought in the Civil War as a Confederate.42

Ezekiel John Ellis' father, Ezekiel Parke Ellis (b. 1807),43 was Judge of the 6th Judicial District in Louisiana44 and in 1850 owned 8 slaves45 and in 1860 owned 11 slaves.46  Ezekiel Parke's brother, Stephen Richard Ellis (b. 1795),47 a minister,48 owned 7 slaves in 185049 and 11 slaves in 1860.50


ABRIDGED PEDIGREE CHART FOR FRANK BURTON ELLIS
For clarity, only Ellis' direct ancestors are shown.  Omitted are their siblings with their spouses and children, even though they are cited in the text.
Pedigree Chart for Frank Burton Ellis


Frank Burton Ellis' Maternal Branch

Margaret Burton Whiteside (b. 1884)51

Frank Burton Ellis' mother was Margaret Burton Whiteside whose father, James Robinson Whiteside (b. 1849),52 was a lawyer and physician.53  Her father's brother, Henry Clay Whiteside (b. 1842),54 fought in the Civil War for the Confederates.54

James Robinson Whiteside's sister was Margaret M. Whiteside (b. 1842)55 whose husband, Walter Scott Bearden (b. 1843),56 was a lawyer.56  Walter Scott Bearden fought in the Civil War for the Confederates57 and became Judge of Chancery Court in Tennessee.58  He was also a Knights Templar Mason and attained the rank of High Priest.59  Walter Scott's twin brother, Edwin R. Bearden (b. 1843),60 also fought in the Civil War for the Confederates.61  Their father, Benjamin F. Bearden (b. 1814),62 was a physician63 who owned 2 slaves in 185064 and at least 1 slave in 1860.65

James Robinson Whiteside's father, Thomas Cooper Whiteside (b. 1809),66 was a lawyer,67 served as Attorney General, was a bank president, director of a railroad, and an owner of Sylvan Mills.68  He owned 10 slaves in 185069 and 30 slaves in 1860.70  Thomas Cooper Whiteside's father, David Whiteside (b. 1785),71 owned 6 slaves in 1850,72 and his third wife, Louisa Wright (b. 1812),73 owned 2 slaves in 1860.74

Margaret Burton Whiteside's mother was Frances "Fannie" Smith (b. 1854)75 whose brother, Michael Hoke Smith (b. 1855),76 was a lawyer who owned the Atlanta Journal newspaper (later, the Atlanta Journal-Constitution)77 and had a brilliant career in politics, serving as U.S. Senator,77 Governor of Georgia77 and Secretary of the Interior in President Grover Cleveland's Cabinet.78  He was responsible for a state constitutional amendment designed to disfranchise black voters in Georgia.79

Michael Hoke Smith was married to Marion "Birdie" McHenry Cobb (b. 1860)80 whose father, Thomas Reade Rootes Cobb (b. 1823),80 was a lawyer,81 author and staunch advocate of Georgia's secession.82  Thomas Reade Rootes Cobb fought in the Civil War for the Confederates and rose to the rank of Brigadier General.83  He believed that slavery was divinely ordained and coined the motto: "Resistance to Abolition is Obedience to God."84  In 1850, he owned 15 slaves,85 and in 1860, he owned 23 slaves.86

Thomas Reade Rootes Cobb was married to Marion McHenry Lumpkin (b. 1822)87 whose father, Joseph Henry Lumpkin (b. 1799),87 was Chief Justice of Georgia's Supreme Court88 and owned 38 slaves in 185089,90 and 17 slaves in 1860.91  Joseph Henry Lumpkin's brother, Wilson Lumpkin (b. 1783),92 was a politician who owned 20 slaves in 1850,93 served in the Georgia and U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate and was elected Governor of Georgia.94  Marion McHenry Lumpkin had eight brothers, born between 1825 and 1841.95  At least seven of the brothers fought in the Civil War for the Confederates, and three were slaveholders in 1860.95

Thomas Reade Rootes Cobbs' brother was Howell Cobb (b. 1815),96 a politician who fought in the Civil War for the Confederates and rose to the rank of Major General.96  Howell Cobb was elected Governor of Georgia, was a delegate to the Confederate Provisional Congress, served in the U.S. House of Representatives where he became Speaker of the House, and was appointed U.S. Secretary of the Treasury.96  He owned 11 slaves in 185097 and about 271 slaves in various Georgia locations in 1860.98

Thomas Reade Rootes Cobb's other brother was John Boswell Cobb (b. 1826),99 who was a merchant,100 Confederate Major101,102 and the owner of 18 slaves in 1860.103  The mother of the Cobbs brothers, Sarah Robinson Rootes Cobb (b. 1792),104 also owned 12 slaves in 1860,105 following her husband's death.

Margaret Burton Whiteside had a great-grandmother, Frances Burton (b. 1815),106 who owned 6 slaves in 1860107 and whose brother, Augustus W. Burton (b. 1825),108 a lawyer, fought in the Civil War for the Confederates.109  Their father, Robert Hutchins Burton (b. 1781),110 was a judge.111 

Frances Burton was married to Michael Hoke (b. 1810),112 a lawyer.113  Their son, Robert Frederick Hoke (b. 1837),114 fought in the Civil War for the Confederates and rose to the rank of Major General.115  Hoke County in North Carolina was named in his honor.116

Michael Hoke had five brothers.  Among them were John Franklin Hoke (b. 1820),117 William J. Hoke (b. 1825)117 and Francis E. Hoke (b. 1822).118  Michael Hoke also had two half-brothers, Henry Hoke (b. 1796),119 who owned 7 slaves in 1850,120 and Jacob Hoke (b. 1807),121 who owned 3 slaves in 1850122 and 6 slaves in 1860.123  John Franklin Hoke was a lawyer124 who owned 3 slaves in 1850122 and 4 slaves in 1860.125  He fought in the Civil War for the Confederates and rose to the rank of Brigadier General.126  William J. Hoke, who owned 8 slaves in 1860,127 also fought for the Confederates and attained the rank of Colonel.128  Francis Hoke owned 2 slaves in 1860.125

John Franklin Hoke's son, William Alexander Hoke (b. 1851),129 was a lawyer130 and slaveholder131 who became Judge of Superior Court and Justice and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of North Carolina.132

Frank Burton Ellis' Selected Cousins

Robert Stephen Ellis, Sr. (b. 1871)133

Robert Stephen Ellis was Frank Burton Ellis' first cousin, once removed.  He received his law degree from Tulane University133 and was Judge of the 25th Judicial District of Louisiana for four terms.133  He belonged to the Ku Klux Klan, Sons of Confederate Veterans, and Knights Templar of Hammond and Royal Arch Masons, in which he held the rank of High Priest.133

Robert Stephen Ellis, Jr. (b. 1899)134

Robert Stephen Ellis, Jr. was Frank Burton Ellis' second cousin.  He received his law degree from Louisiana State University135 and was Judge of Louisiana's 1st Circuit Court of Appeal.136

Robert Stephen Ellis, Jr. was married to Newcomb College graduate, Eleanor "Peeps" Ogden Kemp (b. 1909),137 whose brother, Bolivar Edwards Kemp, Jr. (b. 1904)138 was Assistant District Attorney in New Orleans and Attorney General of Louisiana.139  Her father, Bolivar Edwards Kemp (b. 1871),140 received his law degree from Tulane University140 and was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives.140  Her grandfather, William Breed Kemp (b. 1834),141 obtained his law degree from the University of Louisiana (later, Tulane University of Louisiana), fought in the Civil War for the Confederates, was a Mason142 and later became a judge.143  Her great-grandfather was Hillery Jackson Kemp (b. 1812),144 who owned 13 slaves in 1850145 and 20 slaves in 1860.146  He also served in the Confederate Army.147

Frederick Stephen Ellis (b. 1924)148

Frederick Stephen Ellis was Frank Burton Ellis' second cousin, once removed.  He received his law degree from Tulane University149 where he was active in student government and an editor of the Tulane Law Review.150  He became Judge and later Chief Judge of Louisiana's 1st Circuit Court of Appeal,151 served as ad hoc Judge for Civil District Court of Orleans Parish, and was a member of the Supreme Court Commission on Judicial Ethics.152  His social and civic memberships included the exclusive Boston and Pickwick Clubs, the Covington Lions and Rotary Clubs, and the St. Tammany Historical Society.152  He also taught at Tulane Law School.152

Richard "Dick" Parke Ellis (b. 1925)153

Richard "Dick" Parke Ellis was Frank Burton Ellis' second cousin, once removed.  He was a member of the exclusive Pickwick Club.154

Thomas "Tommie" Cargill Warner Ellis, III (b. 1927)155

Thomas "Tommie" Cargill Warner Ellis, III was Frank Burton Ellis' second cousin, once removed.  He was a lawyer who received his law degree from Tulane University,156 which he supported, and in whose alumni affairs he was active.156


Alice Grima
— Wife of Frank Burton Ellis —
(1905-1993)157

Frank Burton Ellis and Alice Grima were married in 1934 and had three children.158  Ellis later divorced his wife, and in 1965 the 58-year-old jurist, then in poor health, retired from the federal bench and married 34-year-old Marjorie L. Wheatley of New Orleans.159  He died four years later.

Alice Grima's Fraternal Branch

George Grima (b. 1853)157

Alice Grima's father was George Grima, a commission merchant.160  He was the youngest of seven brothers, four of whom were in their 20s during the Civil War and fought for the Confederates.  They were: Paul Albert Grima (b. 1840),161 Louis Alfred Grima (b. 1839),162 a member of the Pickwick Club, Alphonse "Alf" Grima (b. 1838)163 and Felix Etienne Grima, Jr. (b. 1835).164

One of the younger brothers, Louis Edgard Grima (b. 1847),165 was a lawyer and notary166 who graduated from Tulane Law School167 and handled the notarial business of Citizens Bank of Louisiana167 which had traded in slaves as collateral.  Another brother, Victor Grima (b. 1837),168 who was in his 20s during the Civil War, bypassed the conflict by journeying to Paris where he received medical training in ophthalmology.169  He returned to New Orleans to practice ophthalmology, and he also taught at Tulane University.169

George Grima's father, Felix Etienne Grima (b. 1798),170 was Judge of Criminal Court in New Orleans,171 held the post of Deputy Attorney General of Louisiana,172 was a lawyer and notary173 and owned 6 slaves in 1850174 and 6 slaves in 1860.175  Felix Etienne Grima's mother, Marie Ann Filiosa (b. 1753),175 had owned 8 slaves according to the slave census of 1850.176

George Grima's mother was Marie Sophie Adelaide Montegut (b. 1811),177 a slaveholder178 whose father, Joseph Montegut, Jr. (b. 1780),179 owned St. Sophie Sugar Plantation in Plaquemines Parish180 and in 1805 owned 3 slaves in New Orleans.181  Her grandfather, Joseph Montegut, Sr. (b. 1735),182 a physician born in France, was Chief Surgeon at Charity Hospital in New Orleans,183 sold or freed 9 of his slaves between 1778-1802,184 owned 14 slaves in 1805185 and became Louisiana's Secretary of the Treasury under the Claiborne Administration.186

One of Marie Sophie Adelaide Montegut's brothers was Joseph Edgard Montegut (b. 1806)187 who became Mayor of New Orleans in 1844.188  Another of Marie Montegut's brothers was Louis Gabriel Montegut (b. 1814),189 a banker who owned 12 slaves in 1850190 and whose son, Joseph Gabriel Nicholas Montegut (b. 1839),191 a notary and bank cashier,192 fought in the Civil War for the Confederates and achieved the rank of Colonel.193  In 1885, Joseph Gabriel Nicholas Montegut was appointed Superintendent of the U.S. Mint in New Orleans by President Grover Cleveland.193  The town of Montegut, Louisiana was named for him.194

Marie Sophie Adelaide Montegut had a sister, Rose Gabrielle Montegut (b. 1808),194 who was married to Jacques Joseph Armand Francois Pitot (b. 1803),195 a lawyer,196 Clerk of the Louisiana Supreme Court,197 member of the New Orleans City Council,198 legal advisor to Citizens Bank of Louisiana198 which traded in slaves as collateral, and Secretary to the Commission revising the Civil Code of Louisiana.198  He owned 12 slaves in 1850199 and 11 slaves in 1860.200  They had four sons: Jacques Joseph Armand Pitot (Jr.), (b. 1829),201 a lawyer202 who fought in the Civil War for the Confederates,203 Francois Edgar Joseph Pitot (b. 1832),204 who also fought in the Civil War for the Confederates,205 Jacques Francois Gustave Pitot (b. 1838),206 who became Manager of Citizens Bank of Louisiana,207 and Edouard Jacques Francois Pitot (b. 1843)208 who became a planter.209

Jacques Joseph Armand Pitot's father, Jacques Pitot ("James Pitot") de Beaujardiere (b. 1775),210 a cotton merchant211 who owned 6 slaves in 1805,212 was appointed by Louisiana Governor William C. Claiborne as the second Mayor of New Orleans213 and later, Judge of the First Probate Court of the Territory.214


ABRIDGED PEDIGREE CHART FOR ALICE GRIMA
For clarity, only Grima's direct ancestors are shown.  Omitted are their siblings with their spouses and children, even though they are cited in the text.
Pedigree Chart for Alice Grima


Alice Grima's Maternal Branch

Louise Marie Durruty (b. 1867)215

Alice Grima's mother was Louise Marie Durruty, who was born in Louisiana but whose French ancestral line is not relevant to the present discussion.


Carl Bernofsky
Shreveport, Louisiana
November 30, 2008
Latest Revision: October 13, 2009


Postscript

Every effort has been made to assure historical accuracy by referencing only what are considered to be reliable sources.  In some instances the most probable spelling, date or fact had to be selected from among several that were encountered for a particular individual.  No attempt was made to construct a comprehensive genealogy.  Presented instead is a representative account of the families investigated that suffices to substantiate the premise set forth in the introductory paragraphs.  The genealogical research of Shirley Bernofsky is gratefully acknowledged.  Corrections and suggestions for additions should be addressed to the author at tulanelink@aol.com.



References

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  14. "E.P. Ellis and Family Papers 1812-1914", Louisiana State University Special Collections (Mss. 663) Inventory, Louisiana and Lower Mississippi Valley Collections, Hill Memorial Library, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, Reformatted 2007, P. 4. http://www.lib.lsu.edu/special/findaid/0663.pdf. Accessed 5 Jul 2008. Also: Luana Henderson, "E. John Ellis Diary", Mss #2795, Inventory, Louisiana and Lower Mississippi Valley Collections, Special Collections, Hill Memorial Library, Louisiana State university Library, Baton Rouge, Louisiana State University (2006), P.8. http://www.lib.lsu.edu/special/findaid/2795.inv.pdf. Accessed 22 Aug 2008.

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  208. New Orleans, Louisiana Birth Records Index, 1790-1899, Edouard Jacques Pitot, Vol. 7, P. 635. http://www.ancestry.com. Accessed 6 May 2008.

  209. Ancestry.com.1880 U.S. Federal Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2005, Louisiana, Orleans, New Orleans. MyFamily.com,, District 36. http://www.ancestry.com. Accessed 26 May 2008.

  210. Grace Elizabeth King, Creole Families of New Orleans, New York: Macmillan Company (1921) 465 pp., P. 429. Accessed 27 Oct 2008. http://books.google.com/books?id=cXQOAAAAIAAJ&dq=maunsel+white+new+orleans. Also: John Smith Kendall, History of New Orleans by John Kendall, Chicago and New York: The Lewis Publishers (1922) 605 pp. (Webpage in the public domain), Chapter IV: Establishment of the Municipal Goverment. The Author's Notes, following P. 74. http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/America/United_States/Louisiana/New_Orleans/_Texts/KENHNO/home.html. Accessed 12 Nov 2008. Also: Rootsweb's World Connect Project, "Wood Family History" by Bonnie Bess Wood, ID: I4672. http://wc.rootsweb.com. Accessed 12 Nov 2007.

  211. "Administrations of the Mayors of New Orleans: James Pitot (1784-1831)", (Louisiana Division, New Orleans Public Library). http://nutrias.org/info/louinfo/admins/pitot.htm. Accessed 12 Nov 2008. Also: John Smith Kendall, History of New Orleans by John Kendall, Chicago and New York: The Lewis Publishers (1922) 605 pp. (Webpage in the public domain), Chapter IV: Establishment of the Municipal Government. P. 69. http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/America/United_States/Louisiana/New_Orleans/_Texts/KENHNO/home.html. Accessed 12 Nov 2008.

  212. Submitted by Judith Vinson and Colleen Fitzpatrick, 1805 New Orleans City Demographics, LaGen Web Archives, Updated May 2003. http://files.usgwarchives.org/la/orleans/history/directory/1805.txt. Accessed 15 Nov 2008.

  213. Rootsweb's World Connect Project, "Wood Family History" by Bonnie Bess Wood, ID: I4672. Accessed 12 Nov 2007. Also: John Smith Kendall, History of New Orleans by John Kendall, Chicago and New York: The Lewis Publishers (1922) 605 pp. (Webpage in the public domain), Chapter IV: Establishment of the Municipal Goverment. P. 69. http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/America/United_States/Louisiana/New_Orleans/_Texts/KENHNO/home.html. Accessed 12 Nov 2008. Also: Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, The Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., List of Mayors of New Orleans. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mayor_of_New_Orleans. Accessed 1 Dec 2008.

  214. John Smith Kendall, History of New Orleans by John Kendall, Chicago and New York: The Lewis Publishers (1922) 605 pp. (Webpage in the public domain), Chapter IV: Establishment of the Municipal Government. P. 74. http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/America/United_States/Louisiana/New_Orleans/_Texts/KENHNO/home.html. Accessed 12 Nov 2008.

  215. Submitted by Debbie Lee Hadsall DeLerno, "Grima Family Burial Metairie Cemetery, Orleans Parish, Louisiana", LaGenWeb Archives. http://files.usgwarchives.org/la/orleans/cemeteries/metairie/00000556.txt. Accessed 7 Sep 2008. Also: Ancestry.com. New Orleans, Louisiana Marriage Records Index, 1831-1925, Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2002, Louise Marie Durruty, Vol. 17, P. 214. http://www.ancestry.com. Accessed 21 Aug 2008.
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