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A TOUR OF TULANE PLANTATION

A Word to Professors
Not a Legal Contract
Judge Wright and Tulane
Public v. Private
Act 43 of 1884
State Takeover
The Local Legal Scene
Paying Tribute to Judges
Tenure at Tulane
Notice of Adverse Action
A Tale of Three Schools
Saving Public Schools
Rebilking New Orleans
Confederate Heritage
Randall Lee Gibson
Desegregation of Tulane
Reparations
Privileged Entitlement
Buying Political Influence
Local Real Estate Activity
Out-of-State Enterprises
Lusher Charter Schools
"Rebuilding" New Orleans
Universities Post-Katrina
Tulane Lobbying
Karcioglu v. Tulane

Based on its past performance in New Orleans, the ability of Johnson Controls to save the city seems questionable.

Saving New Orleans, or Scamming It?
“Indeed, the breadth of the graft and greed alleged in the indictment is breathtaking, even by the standards of a city inured to public corruption.”
 
The Times-Picayune,
— referring to the Johnson Controls scandal [1]
 
Johnson Controls Inc., the company at the center of one of the largest City Hall corruption scandals in the history of New Orleans, has now been handed the keys to the city, with the Contemporary Arts Center, Tulane University, and Lusher Charter Schools leading the way and others expected to follow.

Johnson Controls is a Fortune 100 engineering firm with $32 billion in annual sales in three major divisions: car batteries, auto interior components, and building efficiency. The latter specializes in automating residential and commercial buildings with sophisticated heating, cooling, security, and fire control and alarm systems. At a time of rising energy costs, the building efficiency division believes it is poised to grow, and it offers a service that retrofits buildings to increase efficiency to the point that it can virtually guarantee the energy savings to pay for its services [2].

The engineering firm now intends to expand its business operations to the rebuilding of dormant inner-city economies across the country. "It's a growth opportunity, it's a new market that we're not in, and it's big numbers," said Eric A. Reisner, a vice president for strategic programs at Johnson Controls [2]. By involving itself in development projects, raising funds, and working with civic leaders and faith-based groups to help build schools, low-cost housing, community centers and clinics, the company intends to keep its order books filled with new projects. The inner-city economic model with which it is experimenting is termed MetroMarkets [2].

The plan is an ambitious one. "We're going to be the leaders in the build-back of New Orleans," said Jean-Paul ("J-P") Hymel, a Johnson Controls project manager in New Orleans and Tulane graduate in electrical engineering. "But when you're in business, you can have a negative-sum game, a zero-sum game, or a positive-sum game. Make no mistake about it: Johnson Controls is in it to make money." [2] "This is something scalable to do national. Then we take it global," said Reisner, a former manager of international operations for the building efficiciency division, which operates in 125 nations [2].

The MetroMarket plan calls for the customized training of workers to fit the specific needs of local employers in areas such as those presented by Katrina-devastated New Orleans, where there is a strong need for restoration and new development. The plan targets the poor who lack the skills needed for many of the new construction jobs available, although Mexicans pouring into New Orleans looking for work are another source of exploitable low-wage labor [2]. The venue for the new program will be the Contemporary Arts Center, whose use for this purpose was offered by the center's executive and artistic director, Jay Weigel, in exchange for repairs to the hurricane-damaged facility [2,3]. The job-training program at the refurbished center is expected to furnish the work force needed to help rebuild the city and meet requirements for the grants and contracts Johnson Controls anticipates it will receive from public and private sources. Through its minority partner in New Orleans, Johnson Controls has already bid for a $100 million FEMA contract to service evacuee trailer camps [2].

To prime the pump, Tulane University contracted with Johnson Controls to rebuild the school's storm-damaged mechanical and electrical infrastructure. The engineering firm has also invested its own resources to help establish momentum for its MetroMarket initiative, and it is seeking outside funding to help refurbish Lusher Charter Schools and other ailing entities. Tulane contributed $1.5 million to insure the opening of Lusher, and this was matched by $1.75 million from the state [4]. Renovation of the Alcee Fortier High School building, which will house the upper grades of the Lusher Charter Schools, is estimated to cost $10 million to $15 million, which Tulane is actively seeking to raise [5].

 
Of $52 million in FEMA money made available for all schools in New Orleans, $16 million was used to renovate the Alcee Fortier High School building for upper grades of the Tulane-affiliated Lusher Charter School.
  • American Federation of Teachers, "NO EXPERIENCE NECESSARY: How the New Orleans School Takeover Experiment Devalues Experienced Teachers," Washington, DC, June 2007, ref. 38, p. 34, http://www.aft.org/presscenter/releases/downloads/NoExperReport_07.pdf, accessed 06/22/07.
FEMA has also committed $1.7 million to help Tulane replace a student housing apartment building.
  • Coleman Warner, "Creative use of grant money possible, FEMA says; Projects can be done bigger or better," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, July 15, 2007, National, p. 12.
In 2009, FEMA will provide Tulane with about $95 million in supplementary assistance for its rebuilding program.
  • "Tulane receives FEMA windfall; Nearly $33 million to pay for storm fixes," The Times-Picayune, July 22, 2009, Metro, p. 1
     

    In June, 2006 Tulane announced a $1.1 million grant from Berlin-based Atlantik-Brücke (Atlantic-Bridge) for renovating the former Alcee Fortier High School gymnasium [6]. Atlantik-Brücke represents industrialists who are attempting to educate the American public about the suffering of the German people in World War II [7]. The gymnasium will be converted into an Atlantic Bridge Community Resource Center that will provide space for meetings as well as exercise [8]. Atlantik-Brücke is also sponsoring trips for New Orleans high school students to visit families in Austria [8].  On February 14, 2007 construction began on the $1.9-million, 11,000-square-foot Goldring Performance Arts Center at Lusher Charter School [9].

    On April 26, 2006, Tulane University President Scott S. Cowen — introduced by U.S. Rep. Bobby Jindal (R-LA) — addressed the Committee on Education and the Workforce of the U.S. House of Representatives and pleaded for additional public funding for higher education and K-12 schools [10]. Cowen also called for the creation of an $800 million Education Relief Loan program that schools like Tulane could use to help retain faculty and students and rebuild campuses, stating that "...the repair of existing facilities ... is the most cost-effective and viable strategy." [10]

    Tulane already received insurance money and has sued for more. Two insurers, Lexington Insurance Co. and Zurich American Insurance Co., settled with Tulane for $100 million in claims [11]. However, Tulane became embroiled in legal disputes with two other insurers: Allianz Global Risks U.S. Insurance Co., for $250 million in claims, and British-based Amlin Underwriting, concerning coverage of "fine arts of every description" [12]. Both lawsuits were filed in Civil District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana and will be heard by the Honorable Kurt D. Engelhardt, with the Honorable Joseph C.Wilkinson Jr. serving as magistrate judge [11]. This placed Tulane in a favorable position as the magistrate had been a member of Tulane's adjunct faculty for many years, and the judge's mother, Adrianne Engelhardt, a long-term employee of Tulane, was administrative assistant to deans of its Medical School in the 1980s and later worked for the Department of Psychiatry and Neurology [13].  Allianz ultimately settled with Tulane for an undisclosed amount (probably less than the $250 million maximum but more than $100 million in coverage) in a case that ended April 3, 2007 [11].

    Tulane achieved other success in obtaining funds for rebuilding. On March 15, 2006, it announced a $300,000 grant from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development to "help rebuild New Orleans in the wake of Hurricane Katrina" [14]. Tulane also received $2 million from the Department of Education [15], $268,000 from the Corporation for National Community Service [16] — supplemented later with another $100,000 [17], $200,000 from the Teagle Foundation [18], $750,000 from the Hurricane Katrina Fund run by former U.S. Presidents George H.W. Bush and Bill Clinton [19], $150,000 from the Fannie Mae Foundation [20], $145,000 from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) [21], $100,000 from AmeriCares International [22], and $14.8 million in federal aid allocated by Congress and distributed by the state [23]. On May 2, 2006, Tulane announced a $10 million grant from a private foundation created by His Highness the Emir of Qatar, who later supplemented it with an additional $5 million [24], and on June 10, 2006 it announced a $1.25 million gift from the Economic Development Administration for a commercial Bioinnovation Center [25].  In September, 2006 Tulane landed a $3.2 milliion grant from the state Board of Regents for faculty endowments [26], and in 2007 it received a $3.4 million Hurricane Education Recovery Award from the U.S. Department of Education [27], a $5 million rebuilding award from the Carnegie Corporation [28], and another $11 million from the National Center for Research Resources to help develop junior research faculty [29].  The latter is from a program that assists universities in underperforming states [29].  Tulane officials have also been lobbying Congress for reimbursment of health-care related expenses, citing $6.8 million for uncompensated patient care and $3 million for other unreimbursed costs in 2005-2006 [30].

    In December, 2006 Tulane University President Scott Cowen announced that the university's fund-raising campaign, dubbed "Promise and Distinction" — inaugurated just months before Katrina — had raised $600 million of its $700 million goal [31].  Tulane later reported that, in 2006 it had received $76.3 million in charitable giving [32].

    In July, 2009, Tulane reported the receipt of $32.9 million from FEMA for Katrina-related expenses, and it anticipates receiving an additional $25–50 million from FEMA to support rebuilding efforts [33].

    Tulane's financial success is difficult to reconcile with the claim of financial exigency that it used to justify its Bold Renewal plan.  Three months after the hurricane, Tulane purchased a condominium belonging to Papillon Associates for $13.2 million [34].  Moreover, Tulane's announcement that it will undertake a major expansion of its baseball stadium [35], open a new facility to manufacture stem cells [36], greatly expand its facilities in Covington, Louisiana to develop vaccines, diagnostics and therapeutics for infectious diseases [37], and extend its offerings in business administration to students in Alexandria, Louisiana [38] — where LSU already has programs in business administration [38], lends credence to the conclusion that the severe measures forced upon the academic community by the Tulane Board of Administrators post Katrina were motivated by factors other than financial exigency.  Even Tulane's lobbying budget for 2006 ($350,000) was not diminished from previous years (averaging $395,000 for the past nine years) [40].

    Tulane's ability to raise money, together with cost-cutting measures that included the termination of faculty and elimination of academic programs, enabled the university to keep its endowment intact [41] and negated the claim of financial exigency that Tulane used to justify its "Bold Renewal."  The American Association of University Professors (AAUP) agreed that Tulane was motivated by factors other than financial exigency, and censured the university for its post-Katrina conduct [42].

     
    Kathy Riedlinger thanks  Eric Reisner of Johnson Controls for promising to rebuild Fortier High School for Lusher Charter Schools. Kathy Riedlinger, principal of Lusher Charter Schools, expresses her gratitude to Johnson Controls executive, Eric A. Reisner, following an assessment of neglected and storm-damaged Alcee Fortier High School [2].  Johnson Controls helped repair Robert Miles Lusher School and looks forward to renovating the Alcee Fortier High School facility for Lusher Charter Schools, a project estimated at $10-15 million [5].  A Johnson Controls employee, Williams Perkins Tift, is Lusher's curriculum coordinator [2,43].  His wife, Kathryn, will graduate from Tulane School of Medicine in 2006 [44].

    Riedlinger's title has since been changed to CEO of Lusher Charter Schools [45].

    (Photo courtesy of Milwaukee Journal Sentinal [2])

     
    What's Wrong With This Picture?

    The information cited above for Johnson Controls and its strategy for New Orleans is contained in two major articles by John Schmid, published by the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel and posted on the Internet January 7 and 8, 2006, by JSOnline [2,3].  Bruce Murphy, of the Milwaukee Magazine, published the following response to Schmid's articles [46].

    Johnson Controls: The Story the Journal Sentinel Wouldn't Tell You
     
    BRUCE MURPHY
     
    January 10, 2006

    Johnson Controls is the savior for America's inner cities, to judge by a big series in the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. The newspaper devoted nearly 5,000 words and two stories on Sunday and Monday to declare that Johnson Controls is the "corporate catalyst for stricken cities." This came on top of a July series that told readers what Johnson Controls is doing to increase minority employment. The entire blitz of overblown reporting was written by the paper's economics reporter, John Schmid.

    Let's begin with what he left out.

    Schmid's latest series shows how Johnson Controls is going to fix New Orleans, without telling us that the company has a no-bid contract (signed prior to Hurricane Katrina) that was rife with corruption and prompted several federal indictments. As the Times-Picayune newspaper has reported, Johnson Controls landed a 20-year, $81 million energy-management contract with former New Orleans Mayor Marc Morial, a contract that was awarded without the public's or city council's knowledge. Members of the Morial administration and others skimmed hundreds of thousands of dollars from the contract, the indictment claims.

    Morial pal Stan "Pampy" Barré grossed more than $800,000 for little or no work done, while Johnson Controls project manager Terry Songy and city property management director Kerry DeCay each took in at least $100,000. DeCay got free home improvements, including Johnson Controls thermostats.

    "The breadth of the graft and greed alleged in the indictment is breathtaking, even by the standards of a city inured to public corruption," the Times-Picayune concluded.

    The Times-Picayune story leaves the implication that Songy, who was not charged, may have testified against the four people indicted. Songy was fired by Johnson Controls after federal investigators contacted the company.  {Songy later pleaded guilty [47].}

    New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin, who succeeded Morial, had raised questions about the Johnson Controls contract even before the scandal broke. The Nagin administration charged that the deal's structure made it impossible to verify whether the savings on energy costs were being realized, and the contract was larded with noncompetitive subcontracts for Morial cronies.

    Nagin was able to renegotiate some items in the contract with Johnson Controls, and the company is now paid $650,000 a year. Is Johnson Controls still collecting from a city that currently has so few buildings needing energy maintenance? Company officials did not get back to me with an answer.

    The U.S. attorney in New Orleans, Jim Letten, called Johnson Controls a victim in this case. Perhaps this was just the price of doing business in the Crescent City. But how could Schmid have ignored the entire story while anointing Johnson Controls as the savior for New Orleans? Darryll Fortune, a spokesperson for Johnson Controls, says Schmid knew about the investigation but decided that the federal case had nothing to do with the company's central cities business plan.

    As for what Schmid includes in his story, he tells us that a company with long experience handling high-tech temperature controls, security systems and the like now wants to revive blighted urban centers by creating new schools, affordable housing and community centers and providing job training. Isn't this a rather huge stretch in the company's expertise, one that calls for some skepticism about its prospects?

    The story also tells readers that Johnson Controls hopes to make a profit in as many as 50 cities, while calling on help from private-sector companies, foundations and government agencies for its urban revival plans. Can the company succeed without such help? Hard to say, since Schmid never asks this question.

    Nor does he bother to measure Johnson Controls against private-public ventures like the Private Industry Council, which exists in many cities (including Milwaukee) and has a long record of providing job training to central city residents. Shouldn't Schmid check the record of other job training and redevelopment specialists before deciding that a novice like Johnson Controls has the answer? The company's entrance into this field may ultimately be beneficial, but readers need some real reporting here, not an extended advertisement for Johnson Controls.

    Copyright 2006, Milwaukee Magazine


    From: Milwaukee Magazine, January 10, 2006, http://www.milwaukeemagazine.com/murphyslaw/2006-01-10.asp, accessed 03/14/06.  Reprinted in accordance with the "fair use" provision of Title 17 U.S.C. § 107 for a non-profit educational purpose.

    The Belfor USA Group, Inc.

    Migrant workers who flocked to the Gulf Coast to work in the cleanup and reconstruction of the area are particularly vulnerable to unlawful exploitation because of their inability to speak or understand English and their lack of familiarity with U.S. laws. One company that Tulane contracted to clean contaminated university and hospital buildings, the Belfor USA Group, became the subject of a class-action lawsuit for unlawfully failing to pay its hired workers their due wages [48].  Nearly half the recovery construction work force in the New Orleans area is Hispanic [49].

    Let Inmates Do It

    Inmates, who are just "sitting around the jail doing nothing," are another attractive source of low-cost labor. Screened inmates can receive work assignments by the Opportunities Industrialization Center of Greater New Orleans, which operates a government-financed training program designed to give inmates opportunities to learn construction skills They can find themselves working on the properties of well-connected individuals — a vestige of the old convict-leasing system in the South [50].

    Worker Exploitation

    On July 6, 2006, a comprehensive document of post-Katrina worker conditions in New Orleans was released by three civil-rights organizations, Advancement Project, the New Orleans Worker Justice Coalition, and the National Immigration Law Center, which collaborated in its preparation. Their report, "And Injustice for All: Workers' Lives in the Reconstruction of New Orleans" [PDF], is a compilation of personal narratives based on more than 700 interviews of New Orleans workers struggling to return and non-resident reconstruction workers attempting to survive in the face of inequitable and unjust policies and practices by public and private institutions [51]. In response "to the influx of Mexican nationals during the city's rebuilding period," New Orleans officials have called for the reopening of the Mexican consulate in the city. City Council Vice President Arnie Fielkow crowed: "With the reopening of the consulate, we are further cementing ties between our city and Mexico, proving that New Orleans truly is the Gateway of the Americas" [52].

    The Union Steps In

    In June, 2006, the AFL-CIO announced that it plans to invest in housing construction and rehabilitation projects in Hurricane Katrina-affected areas and will launch a work force training and development program in New Orleans that will recruit and train people for those jobs [53]. The program, funded primarily by union pension funds, has been praised by New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin. It will be conducted in partnership with Providence Community Partners, a consortium of five local community development and charitable agencies [53].

    Johnson Controls Postscript

    In January, 2007, even as U.S. District Judge Carl Barbier presides over the cases of those who were indicted in the scandal, the City of New Orleans continues to do business with Johnson Controls and in fact has entered into additional contracts with it [54].  Increasingly, former New Orleans Mayor Marc Morial is being viewed as responsible for permitting a culture of corruption to flourish during his administration [54].


    References
    1. Gordon Russell and Frank Donze, "4 indicted in probe of Morial-era deal; Contract used to steal cash, Letten says," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, June 17, 2005, p. A-1.  See also: "A disturbing picture" [Editorial], The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, June 19, 2005, p. B-6. See also: Michelle Krupa, "Haydel gets 2 years in RTA rip-off; Letten keeping the heat on Morial associates," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, September 7, 2006, p. B-1 See also: Gordon Russell, "Defense wants Morial to testify; Subpoena possible ahead of pals' trial," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, January 3, 2007, p. A-1.  See also: Gordon Russell, "Morial casts shadow in pals' trial; Feds try to minimize mention of ex-mayor," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, January 7, 2007, p. A-1.  See also: Gordon Russell, "City Hall bribery case is crowded; Many are named but not indicted," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, February 5, 2007, p. A-1.

    2. John Schmid, "Corporate catalyst for stricken cities; Johnson Controls has a blueprint to revive urban centers across the country while expanding its business" [First of two parts], Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, January 7, 2006, http://www.jsonline.com/story/index.aspx?id=383530, accessed 03/14/06.  See also: Carol Schlueter, "Central Plant Powers Up," Tulane University New Wave, December 5, 2007, http://tulane.edu/news/newwave/120507_powerplant.cfm, accessed 12/06/07.

    3. John Schmid, "Taking an offbeat approach; Johnson Controls has high hopes for a jazz-meets-jobs training center in New Orleans" [Second of two parts], Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, January 8, 2006, http://www.jsonline.com/story/index.aspx?id=383656, accessed 03/14/06.

    4. Tabitha Edgens, "Tulane, Lusher to launch charter school," Tulane Hullabaloo, October 30, 2005, http://www.thehullabaloo.com/..., accessed 11/04/05.

    5. Mary Ann Travis, "Lusher Opens in Partnership with Tulane," Tulane University Magazine - News, February 1, 2006, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=6222, accessed 02/03/06.  [Note that the principal of Lusher Charter Schools, Kathy Riedlinger, also became president of the East Bank Charter School Collaborative.  See: Judy B. Lea, "Charter schools seeking certified teachers," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, April 10, 2008, New Orleans Picayune, p. 9.]

    6. Madeline Vann, "German Foundation Funds $1.1 Million Renovation of Fortier School Gym," Tulane University Magazine - News, June, 2006, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=6585, accessed 06/15/06.  See also: Madeline Vann, "Atlantik-Bruecke Gift to Benefit Lusher," Tulane University Magazine - News, July 3, 2006, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=6618, accessed 07/03/06.

    7. Sarah Liebowitz and Charles M. Sennott, "Europe marks Nazis' surrender; 60th anniversary observed; Berlin seeks forgiveness," The Boston Globe, May 9, 2005, http://www.boston.com/..., accessed 06/15/06.  See also: Charles M., Sennott, "Dresden's Changing Story Line," The Boston Globe, February 13, 2005; reprinted by George Mason University's History News Network, http://hnn.us/roundup/entries/10277.html, accessed 06/15/06.

    8. Steve Ritea, "Algiers charter plan is OK's by board; Association to open two more schools," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, June 17, 2006, p. B-1.

    9. "Big Easy Beat," Tulane Hullabaloo, February 16, 2007, http://www.thehullabaloo.com/home/archives/..., accessed 02/23/07.

    10. Michael Strecker, "Cowen to Congress: Support NOLA Education," Tulane University Magazine - News, April 27, 2006, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=6463, accessed 04/27/06.  See also: Bruce Alpert, "School aid lags, House Demos say; They seek new czar for education crisis," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, April 27, 2006, p. A-4.  See also: "United States House of Representatives Committee on Education and the Workforce; Testimony of Scott S. Cowen - President, Tulane University; April 26, 2006, http://www2.tulane.edu/president_testimony1_2006.cfm, accessed 04/27/06.

    11. Mike Strecker, "Tulane Countersues Insurer in $250 Million Coverage Dispute," Tulane University Magazine - News, July 14, 2006, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=6648, accessed 07/14/06.  See also: Allianz Global Risks US Insurance Company v. Tulane Educational Fund Administration, Case No. 2:06-cv-01723-KDE-JCW, filed March 31, 2006; terminated April 3, 2007 as Case No. 2:06-cv-01723-KDE-KWR.

    12. Xiao-Bo Yuan, "Insurer of Fine Arts at Tulane U. Asks Judge to Limit What's Considered Art," The Chronicle of Higher Education, July 28, 2006, http://chronicle.com/daily/2006/07/2006072805n.htm, accessed 08/02/06.  See also: Amlin Underwriting Company Limited v. Tulane University et. al, Case No. 2:06-cv-03854-KDE-DEK, filed July 21, 2006.

    13. Carl Bernofsky, personal knowledge.  See also: "Faculty and Staff, Tulane University," http://tulane.edu/viewou.cfm?OU=Psychiatry-Neurology (retrieved on Dec. 24, 2004).  See also: "Kurt Engelhardt, Biography," U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Legal Policy, http://www.usdoj.gov/olp/engelhardtbio.htm, accessed 07/17/06.

    14. "Tulane University Receives $300,000 HUD Grant" [News Release], pr@tulane.edu, received 03/15/06.

    15. April Capochino, "N.O. Colleges receive $2M apiece to woo students back," New Orleans CityBusiness, January 11, 2006, http://www.neworleanscitybusiness.com/uptotheminute.cfm?recid=2053, accessed 01/11/06.

    16. Madeline Vann, "New Funding Expands Tulane Students' Rebuilding Efforts," Tulane University Magazine - News, February, 2006, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=6229, accessed 02/02/06.

    17. "Higher Education Initiative to Help Rebuild Gulf Coast Launched by Housing Secretary and National Service Chief" [News Release], U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, November 1, 2005, http://www.hud.gov/content/releases/pr05-153.cfm, accessed 07/27/06.

    18. "Teagle Foundation Announces $600,000 Grant for Hurricane Relief Efforts at Dillard and Tulane" [News Release], The Chronicle: Hurricane Update, December 7, 2005, http://chronicle.com/katrina/index.php?id=107, accessed 07/27/06.  See also: "Teagle Foundation Announces $1.5 Million in New Grants" [News Release], Standard Newswire, March 22, 2007, http://www.standardnewswire.com/news/46369813.html, accessed 03/26/07.

    19. "Bush-Clinton Katrina Fund Aids Tulane," Tulanian, Summer, 2006, p. 53.

    20. "Hurricane Relief," Philanthropy News Digest, The Foundation Center Directory, http://fdncenter.org/pnd/hurricane/corporations.jhtml, accessed 03/20/06.

    21. Brian K. Sullivan, "Tulane, Post-Katrina, Sees Enrollment Down, Bills Up," Blumberg.com, August 30, 2006, http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601103&sid=aBPcxI2HlWKo&refer=us, accessed 10/05/06.

    22. "Approved Hurricane Relief Grants," AmeriCares International, http://www.americares.org/site/c.ivIYIjN3JyE/b.2664049/k.98CB/Approved_Grants.htm, accessed 06/25/07.

    23. David Epstein, "Doling Out Katrina Relief," Inside Higher Ed, February 9, 2006, http://insidehighered.com/news/2006/02/09/katrina, accessed 02/20/06.  See also: Jan Moller, "Storm aid for colleges fails state panel's test; It doesn't like plan to distribute money," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, February 18, 2006, p. A-10.

    24. Michael Strecker, "Tulane University Receives $10 Million from Qatar," Tulane University Magazine - News, May 2, 2006, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=6478, accessed 05/02/06.  See also: John Pope, "Qatar gives millions in relief grants; Education, health, housing all benefit," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, May 3, 2006, p. B-1.  See also: Michael Strecker, "Tulane Receives $5 Million More from Qatar," Tulane University Magazine - News, September 8, 2006, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=6772, accessed 09/08/06.  See also: Alicia Duplessis, "Health Care on the Move," Tulane University New Wave, April 24, 2008, http://tulane.edu/news/newwave/042408_qatar.cfm, accessed 04/24/08.  Note: In 2008, Tulane received another $1.4 million from Qatar to open a clinic in New Orleans East.  See: Jennifer Evans, "Eastern New Orleans gets new adult clinic; Tulane site to help fill health care gap," The Times-Picayune, August 18, 2008, Metro, p. 1.

    25. John Pope, "Higher Education Notes; Tulane health center gets grants; Federal cash goes to building, research," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, June 10, 2006, p. B-1.  See also: Fran Simon, "Tulane to Announce Opening of New Facility to Manufacture Adult Stem Cells," Tulane University Magazine - News, July, 2006, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=6653, accessed 07/17/06.

    26. Madeline Vann, "Board of Regents Funds Chairs, Professorships at Tulane," Tulane University Magazine - News, September, 2006, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=6822, accessed 09/27/06.  See also: Madeline Vann, "Board of Regents Funds Chairs, Professorships," Tulane University Magazine - News, September, 2006, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=6830, accessed 10/02/06.

    27. Kathryn Hobgood, "Tulane University Awarded Nearly $3.5 Million for Hurricane Recovery," Tulane University Magazine - News, August 31, 2007, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=7548, accessed 08/31/07.  See also: "N.O. colleges given millions for recovery," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, September 14, 2007, National, p. 14.

    28. John Pope, "Grants go to Dillard, Tulane and Xavier; Carnegie Corporation invests in rebuilding," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, September 19, 2007, Metro, p. 1.  See also: Mike Strecker, "Carnegie Funds Bolster Faculty, Public Service," Tulane University Magazine - News, September 19, 2007, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=7582, accessed 10/02/07.  See also: John Pope, "Cowen receives Carnegie award; He's recognized for work with schools," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, September 22, 2009, Metro, p. 1.

    29. John Pope, "Kidney research is given millions; Hypertension studies also in Tulane grant," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, August 15, 2007, Metro, p. 1.  See also: Arthur Nead, "Major Grant Boosts Hypertension Research," Tulane University Magazine - News, August 16, 2007, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=7513, accessed 08/16/07.

    30. Suzanne Johnson, "Taking the Healthcare Message to Washington," Tulane University Magazine - News, March 15, 2007, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=7192, accessed 03/16/07.

    31. Scott Cowen, "Tulane Talk," Tulane University, December 8, 2006, http://www2.tulane.edu/tulane_talk/tt_120806.cfm, accessed 12/12/06.  See also: Emily Hohenwarter, "Promise and Distinction renews goals," Hullabaloo, Tulane University, December 8, 2006, http://www.thehullabaloo.com/..., accessed 12/18/06.

    32. Bruce Nolan, "People still open wallets for N.O.; But nationally, aid for disasters falls," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, July 2, 2007, National, p. 1.

    33. "Tulane receives FEMA windfall; Nearly $33 million to pay for storm fixes," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, July 22, 2009, Metro, p. 1.

    34. "NEW ORLEANS REAL ESTATE TRANSFERS," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, December 10, 2005, Inside Out, p. 21.  Note that broker, Mariposa Condominiums LLC, netted at least $3 million in that transaction.  See also: "Tulane buys apartments; Complex to house grad students," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, December 7, 2005, Money, p. 1.  The Lower Garden District Papillon apartments (see PDF) rent for about $1,000 to $1,500 per month and are not restricted to students.

    35. Mike Strecker, "Tulane University Will Re-Start Major Expansion of Turchin Stadium," Tulane University Magazine - News, June, 2006, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=6620, accessed 07/01/06.  See also: "Wave of Progress for Turchin Stadium," Tulane University Magazine - News, December 14, 2006, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=7001, accessed 12/22/06.  Fall practice in the new stadium bagan September 25, 2007.  See: "New Park, New Season for Baseball," Tulane University Magazine - News, October 2, 2007, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=7612, accessed 10/02/07.

    36. Fran Simon, "Tulane to Announce Opening of New Facility to Manufacture Adult Stem Cells," Tulane University Magazine - News, July, 2006, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=6653, accessed 07/17/06.

    37. Madeline Vann, "Expansion of Tulane Research Facilities Brings Money, Jobs to Northshore," Tulane University Magazine - News, January, 2007, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=7074, accessed 01/25/07.  See also: Madeline Vann, "Expansion of Tulane Research Facilities Brings Money, Jobs to Northshore," Tulane University Magazine - News, January 26, 2007, http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=7082, accessed 01/26/07.  See also: Bruce Hamilton, "Tulane primate center kicking off expansion; Upgraded research facility estimated price tag is $63 million," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, January 27, 2007, p. A-1.

    38. "Alexandria Executive MBA," Freeman School of Business, Tulane University, http://www.freeman.tulane.edu/emba/alex, accessed 08/03/06.  See also: Station KDAQ, Shreveport, 89.9 FM, [Commercial Announcement], August 3, 2006.

    39. "Department of Business Administration," Louisiana State University at Alexandria, http://business.lsua.edu, accessed 08/14/06.

    40. OpenSecrets.org, "Lobbying Spending Database: Tulane University of Louisiana Summary, 2006," http://www.opensecrets.org/lobbyists/..., accessed 06/28/07.

    41. John K. Eason, "The Impact of Katrina on Tulane Law School," [Blog], February 9, 2006, http://taxprof.typepad.com/taxprof_blog/2006/02/eason_on_the_im.html, accessed 07/17/06.

    42. Scott Jaschik, "A Flood of Censure," Inside Higher Ed, June 11, 2007, http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2007/06/11/aaup, accessed 06/11/07.  See also: Darran Simon, "Group votes to censure four local universities; Administrators dispute rights-abuse claim," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, June 12, 2007, Metro, p. 3.  See also: Stephen Maloney, "Without Honors; Five N.O. colleges censured for post-storm firings," New Orleans CityBusiness, July 2, 2007, http://www.neworleanscitybusiness.com/viewStory.cfm?recID=19457, accessed 07/05/07.

    43. EDGAR Online, http://yahoo.brand.edgar-online.com/people.aspx?cik=JCI, accessed 03/14/06.

    44. Physicians for Reproductive Choice and Health, Choice Notes, Vol. 9, No. 3, Sept. 2004, p. 6.

    45. Jenny Hurwitz, "Algiers students jump at free ride; Lusher parents irked about lack of notice," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, August 23, 2007, Metro, p. 1.

    46. Bruce Murphy, "Johnson Controls: The story the Journal Sentinel wouldn't tell you," Milwaukee Magazine, January 10, 2006, http://www.milwaukeemagazine.com/murphyslaw/2006-01-10.asp, accessed 03/14/06.

    47. Gordon Russell, "Graft inquiry nets 6th guilty plea; Defendant accused of pocketing kickbacks," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, January 26, 2006, p. A-1.

    48. "Center Seeks Justice for Katrina Workers," SPLC Report, The Southern Poverty Law Center, Vol. 36, No. 1, March, 2006.  See: Xavier et al., v. Belfor USA Group Inc., Case No. 06-0491, filed 02/01/2006 in Federal District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana.  See also: John Pope, "Illegal immigrants lack job safeguards; Health concerns, pay issues raised in report on N.O.'s labor scene," The Times Picayune, June 7, 2006, p. A-1.

    49. Mark Waller, "In the wake of Katrina, thousands of Spanish-speaking people are migrating to New Orleans, drawn by the dream of a better life," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, October 8, 2006, p. A-1.

    50. Leslie Williams, "Inmates in training program do work on judge's house; Program is to teach construction skills," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, July 12, 2006, p. B-1.  See also: Adam Nossiter, "With Jobs to Do, Louisiana Parish Turns to Inmates," The New York Times, July 5, 2006, http://www.nytimes.com/2006/07/05/us/05prisoners.html, accessed 07/12/06.

    51. See: "Worker Exploitation in New Orleans is Running Rampant," Advancement Project [Press Release], July 6, 2006, http://www.advancementproject.org/press_releases/2006/070606.html, accessed 09/30/06.  The report, "And Injustice for All: Workers' Lives in the Reconstruction of New Orleans" [PDF], was authored by Judith Browne-Dianis, Jennifer Lai, Marielena Hincapie, and Saket Soni.  See also: "Time Bandits," [Editorial] The Times-Picayune, July 6, 2009, Metro, p. 3.

    52. Ondina Canales, David Robinson-Morris, and Kate Schneiderman, "City Poised to Welcome the Return of the Mexican Consulate," [Press Release] May 25, 2007, http://www.neworleansonline.com/pr/releases/releases/Mexican Consulate Returns to New Orleans.pdf, accessed 09/08/07.  See also: Jen DeGregorio, "Trade officials meeting in N.O.; Assembly to show 'that we are alive and well'," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, October 21, 2007, Money, p. 1.  See also: Jen DeGregorio, "Japanese Consulate exiting N.O.; Office sees Nashville as better home base," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, December 1, 2007, Money, p. 12.  See also: David Hammer, "Mexican aide fired after snatching BlackBerrys; He's suspected of filching devices at summit meeting in N.O.," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, April 26, 2008, National, p. 1.

    53. Jaquetta White, "AFL-CIO to invest in worker training; Program to accompany $700 million housing investment," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, June 15, 2006, Money, p. 1.  See also: AFL-CIO Housing Investment Trust, "AFL-CIO President John Sweeney Announces Billion Dollar Labor Sponsored Gulf Coast Revitalization Program; Labor joins forces with Mayor Nagin and local and national civic, religious, financial and academic organizations to address New Orleans/Gulf Coast Housing Crisis," [Press Release] June 14, 2006, http://www.aflcio-hit.com/wmspage.cfm?parm1=757, accessed 06/17/06.

    54. Gordon Russell, "Defense wants Morial to testify; Subpoena possible ahead of pals' trial," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, January 3, 2007, p. A-1.  See also: Gordon Russell, "Morial casts shadow in pals' trial; Feds try to minimize mention of ex-mayor," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, January 7, 2007, p. A-1.  See also: Gordon Russell and Frank Donze, "Conspiracy charge often is feds' best friend; After six years, curtain rises on corruption trial; Contracting culture, Morial legacy at stake," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, January 14, 2007, p. A-1.  See also: Gordon Russell and Frank Donze, "‘Yes, I'm Guilty’ say two Morial cohorts; Barré, DeCay admit to conspiracy, fraud charges," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, January 15, 2007, p. A-1.  See also: Gordon Russell, "City Hall bribery case is crowded; Many are named but not indicted," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, February 5, 2007, p. A-1.  See also: Frank Donze, "Jacques Morial to plead guilty; Attorney: He'll admit failing to file taxes," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, September 15, 2007, National, p. 1.  See also: Gordon Russell, "Morial-era probe runs tight on time; Many with guilty pleas still await sentences," The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, April 16, 2008, Metro, p. 1.
     
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